Right Side Of The Law (Silhouette Intimate Moments, No. 1110)
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Painting by Frans Hals : Lucas de Clercq , a Dutch cloth merchant known today for his and his wife's pendant marriage portraits painted by Frans Hals. Justus Sustermans was a Flemish painter working in the Baroque style. He was born in Antwerp and died in Florence. Sustermans is chiefly notable for his portraits of members of the Medici family as he was their court painter. His work can be found in both the Palatina Gallery and the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, and in many other galleries around the globe.
A rare example of a work painted for the artist's own pleasure rather than for a commission, it shows a view of the Het Steen estate near Brussels, which he had acquired in , set in an early-morning autumn landscape. It has influenced artists including John Constable, during his period working for Sir George Beaumont, who then owned the painting and later donated it to the National Gallery in The painting features the first convincing depiction of a mackerel sky.
The painting is the first of its kind in pictorial tradition. No other artist at the time had painted this specific narrative moment. This painting was a gift to the House of Orange, Rembrandt's current patron of a few commissioned paintings. Colonial North America's slave trade begins when the first American slave carrier, Desire, is built and launched in Massachusetts. Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Francesco Stelluti publishes a summary of research on fossil wood conducted by himself and fellow Lincean Academy member Federico Cesi.
Though resulting from meticulous research, the work reaches the wrong conclusion, describing the origin of fossil wood as inorganic. Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Last Theorem , unsolved until This theorem was first conjectured by Pierre de Fermat in in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin.
Galileo Galilei demonstrates that unequal weights would fall with the same finite speed in a vacuum, and that their time of descent is independent of their mass. Thus, freely falling bodies, heavy or light, have the same constant acceleration, due to the force of gravity. Jeremiah Horrox observes the first transit of Venus. Horrox or Horrocks was an English astronomer. He was the first person to demonstrate that the Moon moved around the Earth in an elliptical orbit; and he was the only person to predict the transit of Venus of , an event which he and his friend William Crabtree were the only two people to observe and record.
Painting by Georges de La Tour : Magdalene with the Smoking Flame has been allotted the date of , by analogy with the Saint Mary with a Mirror, which has been dated between and During the 17th century, great devotion was shown to Mary Magdalene in all Catholic countries. She was the perfect lover of Christ, her beauty made yet more appealing by reason of her repentance, which had a special attraction for a period so passionately interested in problems of mysticism, quietism and asceticism.
The theme of the repentance of sinners and trials sent by God is illustrated in such subjects as the Repentance of St. Peter, Mary Magdalene and Job. A number of written works give evidence of the cult of the Magdalene and this cult was the more widespread since Provence owned two great sanctuaries dedicated to her: the grotto of La Sainte-Baume, and the Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer. It has been suggested that Georges de La Tour took a gypsy as his model: at the time, there were many in Lorraine where he painted this picture.
John Punch, a runaway black servant, is sentenced to servitude for life. His two white companions are given extended terms of servitude. Punch is the first documented slave for life. New Netherlands law forbids residents from harboring or feeding runaway slaves. Painting by Frans Hals : Regents of the St.
Elizabeth Hospital. Painting by Simon Vouet : Presentation in the Temple. Massachusetts is the first colony to legalize slavery. The D'Angola marriage is the first recorded marriage between blacks in New Amsterdam. The Tokugawa Shogunate institutes Sakoku — foreigners are expelled and no one is allowed to enter or leave Japan. Permission is denied, but he will publish Men Before Adam anonymously 14 years later, inciting both outrage and mild amusement among religious leaders.
Dutch anatomist Nicolaas Tulp produces the first formal description of an ape a chimp, bonobo or orangutan. Art historian Ellis Waterhouse wrote of it as "a touchstone by which we can interpret the whole of Ribera's art".
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Commissioned by a Flemish dealer, the painting features a Neapolitan beggar boy with a deformed foot. Behind him is a vast and luminous landscape, against which the boy stands with a gap-toothed grin, wearing earth-toned clothes and holding his crutch slung over his left shoulder. This is one of the painter's last works, and one of the most bitter. The painting was completed in , at the peak of the Dutch Golden Age. It depicts the eponymous company moving out, led by Captain Frans Banning Cocq dressed in black, with a red sash and his lieutenant, Willem van Ruytenburch dressed in yellow, with a white sash.
With effective use of sunlight and shade, Rembrandt leads the eye to the three most important characters among the crowd: the two gentlemen in the centre from whom the painting gets its original title , and the woman in the centre-left background carrying a chicken. Behind them, the company's colours are carried by the ensign, Jan Visscher Cornelissen. Pascal's calculator or the Pascaline constructed. The mezzotint printmaking method was invented by the German amateur artist Ludwig von Siegen. Mezzotint is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method.
It was the first tonal method to be used, enabling half-tones to be produced without using line- or dot-based techniques like hatching, cross-hatching or stipple. Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tool with small teeth, called a "rocker.
A high level of quality and richness in the print can be achieved.
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Workers dig up a skeleton in Flanders. A court physician to the Danish king observes the excavation, measures the skeleton in "Brabantian cubits," and attributes the skeleton to a giant. It will later be identified as a fossil proboscidian. Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer. Manchu dynasty established in China; end of the Ming line.
The Manchu conquer China ending the Ming Dynasty. The subsequent Qing Dynasty rules until Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage. Peter Stuyvesant appointed governor of New Amsterdam. Christiaan Huygens invents the pendulum and applies its workings to create highly accurate pendulum clocks. Franciscus Hackius publishes a lavish book on the natural history and medicines available from Brazil, Historia Naturalis Brasileae.
King Charles I is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, is imprisoned at Nottingham. It is housed in the Galleria Doria Pamphilj in Rome. The painting is noted for its realism, in that it is an unflinching portrait of a highly intelligent, shrewd but aging man. He is dressed in linen vestments, and the quality of the work is evident in the rich reds of his upper clothing, head-dress, and the hanging curtains. A contributing factor for this large advancement in the painter's career was that he had already depicted a number of members of Pamphilj's inner court.
Yet the pope remained wary and cautious, and the painting was initially displayed to only his immediate family, and was largely lost from public view through the 17th and 18th centuries. Irish archbishop James Ussher calculates the date of creation, based on the ages of biblical prophets. Using his calculations, theologians will identify the date of creation as on October 26, BC. William Harvey publishes Exercitationes de generatione animalium On Animal Generation explaining that all animal life begins as eggs, whether in birds, amphibians or mammals. According to Joseph Needham, in this work Harvey: 1 presented a doctrine of omne vivum ex ovo all life comes from the egg , the first definite statement against the idea of spontaneous generation; 2 denied the possibility of generation from excrement and from mud, and pointed out that even worms have eggs; 3 identified the citricula as the point in the yolk from which the embryo develops and the blastoderm surrounding the embryo; 4 destroyed once and for all the Aristotelian semen-blood and Epicurean semen-semen theories of early embryogeny; and 5 settled the long controversy about which parts of the egg were nutritive and which was formative, by demonstrating the unreality of the distinction.
The work belongs to the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague, Netherlands. The feeder consists of two half rings and a blue container. The bird is sitting on the top ring, to which it is chained by its foot. In the 17th century, goldfinches were popular pets because they could be trained to draw water from a bowl with a miniature bucket. The Dutch title of the painting pertains to the bird's nickname puttertje, which refers to this custom and translates literally as 'little weller'.
Massachusetts requires all black and Indian servants to receive military training. Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years. Aristotle, world-weary, looks at the bust of blind, humble Homer, on which he rests one of his hands. This has variously been interpreted as the man of sound, methodical science deferring to Art, or as the wealthy and famous philosopher, wearing the jeweled belt given to him by Alexander the Great, envying the life of the poor blind bard.
It has also been suggested that this is Rembrandt's commentary on the power of portraiture. After three months, the Nominated Assembly passes a motion to dissolve itself and Cromwell establishes the Protectorate. A Virginia court grants blacks the right to hold slaves. Scotland incorporated with the English Commonwealth.
Otto von Guericke invents a vacuum pump consisting of a piston and an air gun cylinder with two-way flaps designed to pull air out of whatever vessel it was connected to, and used it to investigate the properties of the vacuum in many experiments. Guericke demonstrated the force of air pressure with dramatic experiments. In , he machined two inch diameter hemispheres and pumped all the air out of them, locking them together with a vacuum seal. The air pressure outside held the halves together so tightly that sixteen horses, eight harnessed to each side of the globe, could not pull the halves apart.
It would have required more than 4, pounds of force to separate them. Painting by Rembrandt : The Polish Rider depicts a young man traveling on horseback through a murky landscape. When the painting was sold by Zdzislaw Tarnowski to Henry Frick in , there was consensus that the work was by the Dutch painter Rembrandt. This attribution has since been contested, though this remains a minority view. There has also been debate over whether the painting was intended as a portrait of a particular person, living or historical, and if so of whom, or if not, what it was intended to represent.
Both the quality of the painting and its slight air of mystery are commonly recognized, though parts of the background are very sketchily painted or unfinished. It has been in the collection of the Louvre in Paris since A similar painting is in Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, possibly by Rembrandt himself but probably by one of his pupils, perhaps Fabritius. Other similar, paintings attributed to Rembrandt or his circle, are held by museums in Budapest and Philadelphia.
Rembrandt made a drawing of a similar scene c. Another, pre, painting of a slaughtered ox the example in Edinburgh, now attributed to Rembrandt's circle but formerly to Rembrandt was perhaps inspired by a lost earlier work by Rembrandt himself. In northern Europe, the month of November was traditionally the season slaughtering livestock in northern Europe, before winter made feed difficult to find.
The island of Jamaica is captured from the Spaniards by the English. Danish scholar Ole Worm publishes Musei Wormiani Historia , a successful book about his cabinet of natural curiosities. Because of these complexities, Las Meninas has been one of the most widely analyzed works in Western painting. The painting shows a large room in the Royal Alcazar of Madrid during the reign of King Philip IV of Spain, and presents several figures, most identifiable from the Spanish court, captured, according to some commentators, in a particular moment as if in a snapshot.
Some look out of the canvas towards the viewer, while others interact among themselves. The young Infanta Margaret Theresa is surrounded by her entourage of maids of honour, chaperone, bodyguard, two dwarfs and a dog. In the background there is a mirror that reflects the upper bodies of the king and queen. Las Meninas has long been recognised as one of the most important paintings in Western art history. The Baroque painter Luca Giordano said that it represents the "theology of painting" and in the president of the Royal Academy of Arts Sir Thomas Lawrence described the work in a letter to his successor David Wilkie as "the true philosophy of the art".
The first persecution of Quakers occurs in Massachusetts. Virginia passes a fugitive slave law. Cromwell dies and his son Richard becomes Lord Protector. Jesuit missionary Martino Martini publishes a manuscript explaining that documented Chinese history predates the time generally understood to mark Noah's flood 2, BC. Richard Cromwell is pressured into dissolving the Protectorate; the Rump Parliament is restored.
John Tradescant deeds his family treasures to fellow collector Elias Ashmole. Ashmole will later donate the collection to Oxford University, stipulating that a separate building is to be constructed for it. For the first time, women began to act in plays in London. Previously men had portrayed both male and female roles.
This painting was documented by John Smith in , who wrote: "This grand and affecting picture exhibits the ruins of a church and convent upon the summit of a hill, occupying the whole extent of the view in the second distance, the declivity of which presents a cemetery, interspersed with large stones. On the foreground are a broken tree lying across a rapid stream, a tomb of black marble, with an inscription on it; a row of three sarcophagi extending along the front; and on the left stands a cluster of large umbrageous trees, the verdant hues of whose foliage is contrasted by the leafless trunk of a beech.
Three persons in black are seen near a small tomb on the side of the hill, musing amidst the tombs. The grandeur and solemnity of the scene is strikingly enhanced by rolling stormy clouds, in which may be perceived the evanescent colours of a rainbow. End of Puritan rule in England; restoration of the Stuarts. The Commonwealth of England ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration.
Foundation of the Royal Society, London, for the promotion of mathematical and physical science. Robert Boyle publishes The Sceptical Chymist helping to transform alchemy into chemistry. Though an alchemist himself with his own cache of secret notebooks, Boyle begins writing up experiments for use by others.
Massachusetts reverses a ruling dating back to , which allowed blacks to train in arms. New York, Connecticut, and New Hampshire pass similar laws restricting the bearing of arms. Until the s, most settlers in the region are small landowners from Barbados. In Gloucester County, Virginia the first documented slave rebellion in the colonies takes place. German physician Otto von Guericke pieces together bones from different species to make a fossil "unicorn.
It forms a pendant with the Regentesses of the Old Men's Almshouse. Though it is no longer known which name belongs with which face, the regents portrayed were Jonas de Jong, Mattheus Everzwijn, dr. Frans Hals painted them in his "loose style", with rough brush strokes. The painting is traditionally dated , though no archival evidence has yet been found to confirm this.
The date is chosen as the middle of the term that the sitters served as regents. Though the paintings as pendants seem to belong together, they did not hang together, and as was the case in the St. Elisabeth hospital across the street, they probably each hung in a separate regents' meeting room; the one for the ladies in the ladies' meeting room and the one for the men in the men's meeting room. Maryland is the first colony to take legal action against marriages between white women and black men.
New York and New Jersey legalize slavery. The State of Maryland mandates lifelong servitude for all black slaves. In his private museum in Rome, Virgilio Romano exhibits a Hippopotamus major canine tooth found in Pleistocene gravels along the Via Nomentana. Isaac Newton discovers that white light is composed of different colors. Painting by Rembrandt The Jewish Bride. Robert Hooke observes cork under a microscope and uses the word cells to describe the tiny chambers that he sees.
He publishes drawings of these cells, of fleas, and of other small creatures, in his book Micrographia. Maryland passes a fugitive slave law. Samuel Morland builds a mechanical calculator that will add and subtract. Milton's Paradise Lost is published. Svetlana Alpers describes it as unique and ambitious; Walter Liedtke "as a virtuoso display of the artist's power of invention and execution, staged in an imaginary version of his studio Its composition and iconography make it the most complex Vermeer work of all.
Virginia declares that Christian baptism will not alter a person's status as a slave. Niels Stensen Steno describes his dissection of the head of a giant white shark and correctly identifies shark teeth, still generally thought despite arguments to the contrary from Rondelet and Colonna in the preceding century to be serpent tongues. The Mission of Sault Ste. Marie, in what will become Michigan, is founded by Father Marquette.
New Jersey passes a fugitive slave law. Natural historian John Somner finds woolly rhino teeth near Canterbury in Kent, and figures they might be the remains of a sea monster. John Somner. Francesco Redi publishes Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Experiments on the Generation of Insects , which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science. At the time, prevailing wisdom was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat. Redi took six jars and divided them into two groups of three: In one experiment, in the first jar of each group, he put an unknown object; in the second, a dead fish; in the last, a raw chunk of veal.
Redi covered the tops of the first group of jars with fine gauze so that only air could get into it. He left the other group open. After several days, he saw maggots appear on the objects in the open jars, on which flies had been able to land, but not in the gauze-covered jars. In the second experiment, meat was kept in three jars.
One of the jars was uncovered, and two of the jars were covered, one with cork and the other one with gauze. Flies could only enter the uncovered jar, and in this, maggots appeared. In the jar that was covered with gauze, maggots appeared on the gauze but did not survive. Knowing full well the terrible fates of out-spoken thinkers such as Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei, Redi was careful to express his new views in a manner that would not contradict theological tradition of the Church; hence, his interpretations were always based on biblical passages, such as his famous adage: omne vivum ex vivo "All life comes from life".
Jan Swammerdam dissects a caterpillar for Cosimo de Medici, demonstrating that the butterfly wings already exist inside the caterpillar's body. A year later, he will publish Historia Insectorum Generalis.
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Robert Hooke presents a lecture to the Royal Society claiming that earthquakes, not the biblical flood, have caused fossils to be found on mountaintops and buried in stone. Painting by Willem Kalf : Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar is a sumptuous still life displaying the sort of costly wares that flowed through the Netherlands during its heyday as a trade center. In Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, Kalf selected an array of precious objects with which to showcase the wealth and refinement of the Netherlands and his own skills as a painter.
Everything is expensive, imported, or both. The citrus fruit, glassware from Venice, and Chinese porcelain jar are evidence of Dutch sailors' enterprise. Local talent is displayed by Dutch silver and a rummer, or wineglass, with a cherub holding a cornucopia at its base. They stand on a marble tabletop with a carelessly crumpled oriental rug. Amid all that luxury is a lesson: a ticking watch on the silver platter reminds the viewer that such earthly riches are fleeting, and worth far less than eternal salvation.
The carefully balanced composition, rich colors, and warm tonalities make this painting an object of beauty as well as moral edification. Niels Stensen Steno publishes Forerunner, showing diagrammatic sections of the Tuscany area geology, making the important point that sediments are deposited in horizontal layers.
The Hudson Bay Company is incorporated. The State of Virginia prohibits free blacks and Indians from keeping Christian i. Agostino Scilla publishes Vain Speculation Undeceived by Sense arguing for the organic origin of fossils. The Greenwich Observatory is built. The book describes Newton's analytic methods, which would now be called calculus.
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invents the Staffelwalze stepped drum, or stepped reckoner , the first mechanical calculator that could perform all four mathematical operations. Its intricate precision gearwork, however, was somewhat beyond the fabrication technology of the time; mechanical problems, in addition to a design flaw in the carry mechanism, prevented the machines from working reliably. Despite the mechanical flaws, it suggested possibilities to future calculator builders. The operating mechanism, invented by Leibniz, called the stepped cylinder or Leibniz wheel, was used in many calculating machines for years, and into the s with the Curta hand calculator.
In discussing his invention, Leibniz wrote Indignum enim est excellentium virorum horas servii calculandi labore perire, qui Machina adhibita vilissimo cuique secure transcribi posset — For it is unworthy of distinguished men to waste their time with slavish calculations, which can be done safely with the use of this machine by anyone else. The Mississippi River is discovered. Apothecary and antiquary John Conyers finds an elephant tusk and a nearby handaxe about 12 feet below ground at Gray's Inn Lane, London.
The Gray's Inn Lane handaxe will later be dated at , years old. Leeuwenhoek begins corresponding with the Royal Society of London describing his discoveries under the microscope. Painting by Jan Steen : Merrymaking at an Inn combines the Flemish tradition of low-life tavern scenes with the more elegant Dutch merry companies. New York declares that blacks who convert to Christianity after their enslavement will not be freed. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek creates a simple microscope with only one lens. He developed glass-handling techniques that allowed him to create lenses with magnifying power up to x — by far the most powerful magnifying lenses available.
Although compound microscopes had been invented in the s, nearly forty years before Leeuwenhoek was born, there were technical difficulties in building them, meaning that early compound microscopes such as used by Robert Hooke had a maximum magnification of only 20x or 30x. Leeuwenhoek's more powerful lenses allowed him to discover protozoa and other single-celled organisms and to be the first to observe bacteria.
The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the English name Philip due to the friendly relations between his father and the Mayflower Pilgrims. The war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April The war was the single greatest calamity to occur in seventeenth century Puritan New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in the history of European settlement in North America in proportion to the population.
In the space of little more than a year, twelve of the region's towns were destroyed and many more damaged, the colony's economy was all but ruined, and its population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service. More than half of New England's towns were attacked by Indians. By early July, over had surrendered to the colonists, and Metacomet took refuge in the Assowamset Swamp below Providence, close to where the war had started. The colonists formed raiding parties of militia and Indians.
They were allowed to keep the possessions of warring Indians and received a bounty on all captives. He was shot and killed by an Indian named John Alderman on August 12, After his death, his wife and nine-year-old son were captured and sold as slaves in Bermuda. Philip's head was mounted on a pike at the entrance to Fort Plymouth, where it remained for more than two decades. His body was cut into quarters and hung in trees.
Alderman was given Metacomet's right hand as a reward. In Virginia, black slaves and black and white indentured servants band together to participate in Bacon's Rebellion. From the observation that the periods of Jupiter's innermost moon Io appeared to be shorter when the Earth was approaching Jupiter than when receding from it, he concluded that light travels at a finite speed, and estimated that it takes light 22 minutes to cross the diameter of Earth's orbit. The habeas corpus act is passed in England. The State of Virginia forbids blacks and slaves from bearing arms, prohibits blacks from congregating in large numbers, and mandates harsh punishment for slaves who assault Christians or attempt escape.
Royal Society member Neremiah Grew examines the "sea serpent teeth" found by John Somner in and recognizes that they are rhino teeth. Amsterdam physician Gerard Blasius publishes Anatome Animalium examining animals' internal anatomy and skeletal structure. The first museum of natural history is established in London. It is signed, dated with the year, and inscribed with the subject at centre bottom , as Claude sometimes did with his less common subjects. It was Claude's last painting, and is perhaps not quite finished; it therefore does not appear in the Liber Veritatis, where he made drawings to record his finished works.
His date of birth is uncertain, but he was at least in his late seventies when he painted it, perhaps as old as What will become Pennsylvania is colonized by William Penn. Penn founds Philadelphia. Also, with other Friends, Penn purchases East Jersey. New York makes it illegal for slaves to sell goods. Virginia declares that all imported black servants are slaves for life. Peter the Great becomes joint ruler of Russia sole tsar in Neremiah Grew publishes The Anatomy of Plants with microscopic observations of plant features. The Ottoman Empire is defeated in the second Siege of Vienna.
Oxford opens the Ashmolean Museum, the world's first public museum. The museum's practice of allowing entry to anyone who pays the admission fee horrifies scholars from continental Europe. Dublin doctor Thomas Molyneux shows that a "giant's tooth" from the collection of Ole Worm really belongs to a whale, and a "giant's hand" shown in London is really the fin of a porpoise. Filippo Buonanni publishes Ricreatione dell' occhio e della mente. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz publishes a description of his invention of the differential calculus.
Edict of Fontainebleau outlaws Protestantism in France. King Charles II dies. Timothy Nourse anticaptes eugenics with the argument that a gentleman "ought at least to be as careful of his race as he is of that of his horses, where the fairest and most beautiful are made choice of for breed.
He is credited with introducing the idea that the motion of objects in the heavens such as planets, the Sun and the Moon can be described by the same set of physical laws as the motion of objects on the ground like cannon balls and falling apples. The Pennsylvania Quakers pass the first formal antislavery resolution.
Giovanni Ciampini describes remains of the extinct straight-tusked elephant, Elephas antiquus , found in the town of Vitorchiano in the region of Latium. John Locke publishes his first Letter Concerning Toleration. Its initial publication was in Latin, though it was immediately translated into other languages. Locke's work appeared amidst a fear that Catholicism might be taking over England, and responds to the problem of religion and government by proposing religious toleration as the answer.
This "letter" is addressed to an anonymous "Honored Sir": this was actually Locke's close friend Philipp van Limborch, who published it without Locke's knowledge. South Carolina passes the first comprehensive slave codes. Virginia passes the first anti-miscegenation law, forbidding marriages between whites and blacks or whites and Native Americans. Virginia prohibits the manumission of slaves within its borders. Manumitted slaves are forced to leave the colony.
The colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts are united. Witchcraft mania begins to take over new England. Naturalist John Ray publishes Three Physicotheological Discourses about the Creation, the Deluge and the Conflagration , discussing conflicting theories about the nature of fossils. Rice cultivation is introduced into Carolina. Slave importation increases dramatically.
The Bank of England is established. Painting by Rachel Ruysch : Flowers on a Ledge. Ruysch's skill lay in the minute observation of each flower in a totally realistic way which is then composed into an elaborate arrangement which would be very difficult to achieve in nature, as the flowers would not support each other so well under such an arrangement. In common with most flower pieces from the last third of the 17th century, the colors of the flowers are much more carefully balanced than in the earlier pictures. Scandinavian historian Olof Rudbeck publishes his attempt to chronologically measure sedimentary deposits, laying the foundations for the field of stratigraphy.
Calcutta is founded by the English. Edward Lhwyd publishes a description of a "flatfish" in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. The flatfish is really a trilobite, an ancient marine arthropod. Desportes was born in Champigneulle, Ardennes. He also did decorative paintings for the duc de Bourbon at Chantilly. Edward Lhwyd publishes a book devoted to British fossils. In it, he describes ichthyosaur remains as those of a fish.
Based on a dissection he performed the year before, Edward Tyson publishes Orang Outan, sive Homo sylvestris pointing out similarities between chimpanzee and human anatomy. Although he has dissected an infant chimp, Tyson uses the term "orang-outan. Samuel Sewall publishes The Selling of Joseph — the first American protest against slavery. The commode becomes a popular piece of furniture.
The Daily Courant — the first daily newspaper — is published in London. Among the prohibitions of this act are meetings of more than three slaves, trading by slaves, and testimony by slaves in court. Delaware separates from Pennsylvania and becomes an independent colony.
Right Side Of The Law (Silhouette Intimate Moments, No. 1110)
Connecticut assigns the punishment of whipping to any slaves who disturb the peace or assault whites. Massachusetts requires those masters who liberate slaves to provide a bond of 50 pounds or more in the event that the freedman becomes a public charge. Rhode Island makes it illegal for blacks and Indians to walk at night without passes. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invents the Binary System. Isaac Newton is elected president of the Royal Society.
Choose from half-hour or hour-long waterborne adventures. While other northern centres were founded on the wool, cotton and steel trades, our great city of York owes much of its riches to the production of this tasty treat. Continue this sweet journey in our Factory Zone to learn how a simple cocoa bean is transformed into the finest chocolate. Our chocolatiers produce some of the finest handmade chocolates available, from salted caramel to Iron-Bru flavours, plus a selection of the best chocolate products from York, Yorkshire and around the UK. We've a passion for beer and brewing and the setting of our brew house in the centre of York is almost as enjoyable as the beer itself.
Converted from an old warehouse in Walmgate, our brewery lies within York's historic city walls, and is the place where we produce cask, keg and canned ales, which are sold throughout the UK. Our Taproom, with its riverside garden, has been built alongside the Brewhouse to showcase our award-winning beers at their freshest. It's a particularly popular spot during our beer, music and food festivals. Try our original brew, Viking DNA, a nod to the heritage of the brewery, which was the original location of the Jorvik Viking centre. Or Imperial Tonkoko, recently voted the 7th best Stout in the world!
Our Beer Hall is a new addition to the venue and showcases 40 different beers, alongside some of the best home-made burgers, made fresh every day by Born to Lose Burger Kitchen. You can also join one of our popular weekend tours, where one of our brewers will guide you through the brewing process, with the chance to enjoy some beer samples along the way. The passes are activated at the first attraction visited, and holders can also enjoy discounts to additional listed attractions, a hour City Sightseeing bus ticket, and a pocket guidebook to the city.
There are discounts on evening entertainment, such as ghost walks and escape rooms, plus money off at numerous cafes and restaurants across the city. Dig into the Viking age on an interactive journey through one of England's most important archaeological sites, where you'll be immersed in vividly recreated sights and sounds, even the smells, of AD.
Explore hundreds of artefacts, including carvings, pottery and human skeletons, uncovered by archaeologists here in the s. Learn how, on this very spot, an accidental discovery made by workmen led to the uncovering of the remains of the original Viking city of Jorvik. Beneath your feet, viewed through glass floors, lie a reconstruction of two well-preserved Viking houses that were found at the dig. Board our special train and be transported back 1, years in time.
On your travels around our reconstructed Viking streets, markets and dwellings our special commentary will tell you all you need to know , you'll meet life-like, speaking animatronic figures, including craftspeople at work, children playing - and even a man using a rough-and-ready outdoor toilet.
Take a look, too, at some of our incredible 40, archaeological finds. Souvenir replica versions are on sale in our gift shop, from drinking sets to chess pieces. England's oldest operating Catholic convent has more than years of history beneath its roof. Step through the Victorian atrium to discover a story of courage, perseverance and prayer, including the tale of Mary Ward: don't miss the interactive exhibition on the life of this indomitable nun, whose pioneering work helped to educate women and girls across England and Europe.
If you're interested in religious history, the library has a collection of theological writings. You'll have to apply for permission in advance but it's worth it for resources that include antique books dating from the 15th century, and a fascinating collection of tomes by and about women in a religious context. Built before Catholic Emancipation, the convent's secret gold and white Baroque chapel was constructed with eight doors and a priest's hole for quick escapes.
Secrecy didn't mean skimping on decoration, though, and the rotunda is full of detailing; look up to see delicately rendered vine leaves, flower garlands and painted glass lanterns. From the world's fastest steam locomotive to Queen Victoria's luxurious personal carriages - York's free-to-visit National Railway Museum is the place to get up close and personal with the technology that shaped the modern railway.
Meet legends of the railway, discover high-speed travel on the Japanese bullet train and find out fascinating facts at our daily talks and tours. Ride the miniature railway, join in with engineering shows and watch live turntable demonstrations. Finish your trip in style with afternoon tea served in the Countess of York, our restored vintage dining carriage.
Try homemade cakes, sandwiches and scones baked to a traditional Yorkshire recipe , before popping into our shop, its shelves packed with everything from miniature trains to period posters - retail heaven for railway fans. Commanding one of the finest positions in York, right opposite the Minster, Dean Court Hotel has an unrivalled location at the centre of this ancient city.
Based in an historic red-brick building with contemporary style, we offer comfort, character - and an uplifting wake-up call with the morning peel of the Minster bells. Our hotel has just 40 bedrooms, including some at the front don't worry, the Minster bells don't ring at night. For added luxury, book one of our two suites, both of which overlook the mighty church, and feature luxuries such as superking beds, calming mist sprays and flat-screen TVs.
Afternoon tea gets a Yorkshire twist here, with a unique take on this English tradition. Forget traditional cucumber sandwiches, our locally sourced spread includes Whitby crab, York ham hock and cakes such as Yorkshire parkin and curd tart - accompanied by a strong cup of local Rington's loose-leaf tea. Fresh local produce and classic and contemporary British dishes underpin our delicious lunch and dinner menus at our AA Rosette D. H restaurant. On the edge of York, overlooking the city's racecourse, our elegant four-star hotel is set in 20, sq m of lush, landscaped gardens. Our restaurant, leisure club and spa will ensure of a supremely comfy stay, with all the comforts and high level of service that are expected of a renowned international hotel group.
To really set the scene, why not book a room with a view over the racecourse? But, whichever room you choose, you'll find high-speed internet access, and large flat-screen TVs with access to cable and premium movie channels, plus you'll enjoy complimentary on-site parking. Plus, there's a full bar with a choice of craft beers and cocktails. Beat a retreat from the city and make the most of our excellent facilities. You can work up a sweat in the Leisure Club, where there's an indoor pool, outdoor tennis court and well-equipped gym.
Then pamper yourself in our relaxing, full-service spa. Here at York Castle Museum, you can wander around recreated Jacobean dining rooms, meet infamous Victorian criminals, and travel back to the swinging Sixties. Founded by Dr John Kirk, a doctor from Pickering, North Yorkshire, our galleries are the proud home of his extraordinary collection of social history, amassed in the early 20th century. One of our most renowned displays is the reconstructed Victorian street, Kirkgate.
Just six miles from historic York, our collection of small gardens surrounding our family home has been lovingly cultivated for more than 40 years. Here at Stillingfleet, you can enjoy our efforts, admiring eye-catching herbaceous borders that change with the seasons and attract many bird and insect species. Our planting is done in the cottage-garden style, all maintained organically.
We leave seed heads as bird food and limit cutting back to promote insect life. The gardens open out into an avenue that leads to a perennial wildflower meadow, while our Rill Garden, with its minimalistic planting, will please the eye of those who love a formal design. In August, it plays host to a sculpture exhibition featuring artists working in a variety of materials. You'll also find local art in our tearoom, located within our lovely renovated barn: a great place to sit, relax and enjoy the peace, and some of our homemade cakes. Many of the plants in the garden are available to buy in our well-stocked nursery.
Find out, too, about our courses and workshops aimed at gardeners of all levels. The Parsonage Hotel offers the best of both worlds. Set in beautiful landscape gardens and woodland in the small village of Escrick only six miles from York, you'll have easy access to the historic city and can return to the Parsonage to be pampered like a country squire, thanks to our top leisure facilities and fine dining. Our hotel's history is evident throughout. Built in the early s, it has retained its fine Victorian looks and many of its original features; some of our 56 rooms include four-poster beds if you're looking for extra luxury.
Unwind at our Cloisters Spa and Health Club, where you can pick from a range of treatments, laze around or do laps in the pool, workout in our state-of-the-art gym, then revive yourself in the sauna, steam and aromatherapy rooms. Guests 18 and over Hungry? Head to the Fat Abbot for great gastro pub food, a roaring fire, cask ales and a friendly welcome. For something more sophisticated, take a table in our Lascelles Restaurant, where locally sourced dishes are served in style.
And for a proper treat, retire to our elegant Drawing Room or find a sunny spot in our gardens for a traditional Yorkshire afternoon tea. In the heart of Leeds, opposite buzzing Trinity Shopping Centre, our historic, four-star hotel is a great base from which to explore the city and Yorkshire beyond. We've comfortable and well-equipped rooms to choose from, plus a leisure club and choice of dining options. All our rooms have flat-screen TVs, premium satellite and high-speed Wi-Fi, plus tea- and coffee-making facilities and comfy pillowtop mattresses.
Choose an Executive Level room and you'll benefit from access to our Executive Lounge, as well as other perks. If you really need to let off steam, then enjoy our complimentary leisure club, home to the largest indoor swimming pool in Leeds, a modern fitness centre, steam room and sauna. History oozes out of every stone at Hazlewood Castle. This Norman estate, now a luxury castle hotel and spa, has been owned by the Vavasour family for more than years; it was mentioned in the Domesday Book, has witnessed the bloodiest battle on English soil, and even had a stint as a maternity hospital - some 1, babies were born here.
Enjoy Hazlewood Castle's latest chapter by checking yourself in. You'll feel a little like royalty while lazing in one of our 32 individually styled rooms - each named after a flower or local character, each gazing over the cherry orchard, the gallops, or our 77 acres of woodland. There's more to our hotel, though, than a good view - it's an adventure playground.
Follow one of our biking or hiking trails through the trees, or try something completely different at our activity centre, which offers everything from archery to axe-throwing. After all that, relax. Sink into our spa for a manicure, massage or mud serail. Then dine at our Vavasour Restaurant - tuck into delicious food within these ancient stone walls, and raise a glass of award-winning wine, produced on our family vineyard, to a great break. Cusworth Hall offers a great, green gulp of fresh air close to industrious Doncaster. This beautiful Grade I-listed Georgian country house sits in acres of wildlife-rich and historic parkland.
Recently restored, Cusworth Hall is now a social-history museum, a place to uncover how the people of South Yorkshire have lived, worked and played for or more years. Or just relax for a while: bring a picnic, walk your dog, and let the kids loose on the play area. Rossington Hall is a Victorian stately home revived. Having fallen into disrepair, this Grade II-listed South Yorkshire estate needed some tender, loving care. So we've returned it to its former glory and flung wide its doors for weddings and events, first-class dining and truly special overnight stays.
It becomes your stately home for the day or for the weekend. The historic part of the house was completed in and has had many of its original features restored; you can still enter through the doors of the striking portico. Take a seat in the library or conservatory restaurant, where we serve delicious a la carte or our seven-course tasting menu. Retire to the drawing room for post-dinner drinks or simply to relax. Sweep up the grand staircase to reach our 19 luxury bedrooms, where you can sleep with a sense of Victorian refinement. Each one has antique fabrics and furnishings but also contemporary touches and impressive bathrooms.
The estate's acres of grounds have also been lovingly restored. Stroll across the rolling lawns, inhale the scent of the roses, walk along the rhododendron path to the lily pond or sit awhile in the Italian Sunken Garden. Gain a unique insight into the world during the Ice Age at these caves hidden within the magnesian limestone gorge of Creswell Crags on the Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire border.
A Site of Special Interest, they contain the northernmost discovery of Prehistoric cave art in Europe and only example of cave art in the UK. Find out more at our archaeological sites, museum and visitors' centre. Discover the subterranean secrets of four of Creswell's caves on a cave tour. Put on a helmet and become an explorer: delve into the past and learn about the life of Ice Age people at the most Northerly point that could be reached - and see walls decorated with pictorial representations from bison and deer to abstract marks created by Ice Age artists.
Excavations at Creswell Crags have been so fruitful that artefacts found here are now displayed in 37 museums in England, Scotland and Ireland. The collection here reveals some of the best finds - including a baby hyena skeleton, bear bones and an impressive array of hand axes and flints. The area around Creswell Crags is full of marked walking trails and natural wonders. Try one of our bat walks or watch birds, including Peregrine Falcons. And if you're visiting in spring or summer, you can spot 22 different species of butterfly dancing over woodland carpets of bluebells and primroses.
Take a guided tour to discover more about our eclectic country house and its most famous residents, including the literary trio of Edith, Osbert and Sacheverell Sitwell. All were dedicated patrons of the arts, and you can browse items from their private collections, as well as displays of letters, books and other artefacts, at the Sitwell Museum.
Outside, our Italianate Gardens will transport you across the Continent. Promenade down the lime avenue, between the ornamental ponds and classical statues, take a seat by the fountain, admire the explosions of camellias and roses, and find peace in our secret garden rooms. Explore a little further to seek out our temple and stroll around the lake, which is alive with butterflies, dragonflies and birds. Our vineyard is award-winning; book a tour and you can learn how we create our still and sparkling wines — and sample them, too. Peak Cycling will help you explore the best of Derbyshire and the Peak District - the UK's first national park - on two wheels.
From thigh-testing road climbs to gnarly mountain-bike descents and expert tuition for beginners, we'll ensure you have a great ride. Find a route to suit: go on road, off-road, up gravel trails and down charming country lanes - making time to stop for tea and a Bakewell tart, too. Our range of guided rides is designed for all types of cyclist, whether you're a nervous novice or a pedalling pro.
Start with one of our family-friendly Blue rides, on either Tarmac or trail. Enjoy a leisurely cycle, soaking up the scenery. Our Red routes are a bit tougher, taking you deeper into the Peak District to tackle stiffer climbs and more technical terrain. Brave our Black routes for the biggest challenge.
Take on the mountain-bike playground of Dark Peak, for classic drops and rocky trails. Or spend a full day in the saddle, exploring the national park and even testing yourself against Tour of Britain ascents. To take part in these dangerous operations and to deal with the difficult aftermath? Opened in spring , the International Bomber Command Centre is the only place in the world to tell that story, and memorialise all those who lost their lives.
We are a centre for reconciliation, recognition and remembrance. Here, you can listen to first-hand stories from those involved on all sides, move around our immersive and interactive exhibition galleries, and join a free tour with one of our experienced guides to gain a deeper insight into the troubled legacy of this period. Take your time to explore our acre Peace Gardens. You'll find the UK's tallest war memorial and the names of all those who lost their lives in Bomber Command here. But you'll also find quiet, contemplative spaces where you can stroll amid the native trees, enjoy views over the historic city of Lincoln and pause for your own moment of remembrance.
Stay the night at our independent luxury bed and breakfast, a renovated heritage Victorian villa on the outskirts of Lincoln. Built by a Dentist in , our Gothic-inspired mansion was also a doctors house and a private ballet school. It is adorned with 52 stained-glass picture windows and retains its double arched doorway and striking turret. Relax in one of three spacious period bedrooms, where original fireplaces, corniced ceilings and antique furniture blend seamlessly with top-of-the-range modern conveniences and technology. Sleep soundly beneath Egyptian cotton sheets and goose-down duvets, wake to the daylight flooding through coloured glass, and refresh with a rainfall shower or a soak in a slipper bath.
Our locally sourced breakfast is served in our Turret dining room, where you can enjoy all-round views of our garden and grounds we've a croquet pitch on the lawn before setting off for a day's exploration of Lincoln, its cathedral and the surrounding area. Then return to unwind in our large period drawing room, where you can curl up with a good book on a Chesterfield armchair by the fireside. This exciting new space is more than just a cafe. Or take a seat in our new Blue Room, a beautifully restored Edwardian performance space that plays host to everything from cabaret to live music, and yoga classes.
Fine coffees and expertly blended teas, of course, remain at the heart of what we do, the perfect companion to exemplary menus of afternoon teas, brunch and lunch. And just like our other cafes — including the original Stokes High Bridge branch, in a 16th-century, half-timbered building spanning the River Witham — you can expect an atmospheric location.
Set in an ornate hospital building that dates back to , The Lawn is a place to come and be taken care of, a good cuppa in hand. There are 42 cathedrals in England and, of them, Nottinghamshire's Southwell Minster may well be the best-kept secret. Rising from the leafy suburbs of the beautiful Georgian market town - unlike most other cathedrals, which are in cities - free-to-visit Southwell Minster dates back almost 1, years, and is a place of history, art and peace. Set in England's smallest Cathedral town you'll be awed by the scale of the huge Norman nave, as well as the beauty of the stained-glass windows; look for the moving memorial window that honours those from both sides who died in the First World War.
Then admire the Leaves of Southwell - these naturalistic 13th-century stone carvings in the Chapter House are among the finest in Europe. Head next door to the Archbishop's Palace to immerse yourself in royal intrigue. Wander our new Education Garden - complete with Medieval parterre, Tudor knot garden and Victorian beds - to get up-close to the palace ruins, trace the site's timeline through horticulture, and relax in the beauty of nature. Our grand English country estate has a host of attractions to excite the whole family.
Visit our Victorian courtyard to see the military museum, art gallery and shops, and roam our vast expanse of unspoiled countryside, set amid the ancient woods of Sherwood Forest. At the heart of our estate is Thoresby Hall, a magnificent 19th-century country house now enjoyed by guests at the Warner's hotel within its walls. There's a gallery here, too, which displays the works of Marie-Louise Roosevelt Pierrepont, who lived at the hall in the early 20th century, also showing work by local artists.
In the courtyard's boutiques, you'll find more art in action, with working craftspeople, such as jewellers and glass blowers, displaying their skills - buy one of their creations as a special souvenir. After a bite to eat in The Bay Tree Cafe, step out in the parkland, with its ancient oaks, on a 2.
John's Church in Perlethorpe. Venture back in time to discover legendary Sherwood Forest and The Major Oak on one of our exclusive private experiences. Leave the crowds behind and let expert archaeologists and historians reveal in vivid detail the hidden history and myths of this beautiful forest. It really is a landscape of legends. As we lead you on foot beneath a canopy of ancient oak trees on our half- or full-day tours of Sherwood Forest National Reserve we will tell you tales of foresters, outlaws and kings, hunting and everyday life in the time of Robin Hood.
And you'll hear about the ballads and legends of one of the most famous figures in medieval English history and their links to the surrounding landscape of oak forest and heather-clad heathland. Other private guided tour options, including small-group and longer tours, over a number of days, or combining other destinations such as Lincoln and Nottingham can be arranged on request. The landscape around Sherwood Forest is home to an original copy of Magna Carta, the origins of the Mayflower Pilgrim, plus there are stately homes and a ruined abbey, as well as rock art dating from the Ice Age carved in ancient limestone caves nearby.
The science and craft of timekeeping through the centuries is the theme of our collection of some 10, items including clocks, watches and other timekeeping devices of which over are on display. From the first electric timepiece to the watch used by Captain Scott on his ill-fated Antarctic expedition, there is much to admire here. Pause to listen to the voice of the General Post Office's first speaking clock and see the workings of the original machine, still functioning today.
View clocks that once graced England's iconic public buildings, including London's St Pancras railway station. As you set your imagination whirring through the history of time, our expert volunteers will be on hand to share historic anecdotes and facts about the exhibits, from minuscule mechanisms and examples of precision engineering to colossal constructions. Make time, too, to explore the grounds and grandeur of Upton Hall, the early 19th-century mansion that has housed the headquarters of British Horological Institute, the award-winning museum and world-renowned horological library for nearly half a century.
Set within the Italianate-style building of Newark Castle Station, Carriages is a cafe with a difference.
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Located on platform one, Carriages is designed to promote social eating, it's a place that encourages people to engage with each other in a friendly environment. Built in , our decor takes a Victorian theme that is both quirky and interesting with artwork and curios adorning the walls and floors.
Our steampunk inspired licenced bar area in the dining room offers freshly prepared food and drink and a separate kitchen that delivers tasty hot meals throughout the day.
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Our menus of coffee and cakes to delicious meals cater for vegetarian, vegan and gluten free diets. We have parking available and adjacent to the station, which is located a 5-minute walk from the centre of Newark. What's more, our weekly community cafe on Wednesday's serves up delicious meals made from surplus supermarket food, helping to avoid food waste. The ancestral home of the Manners-Sutton family, our historic hall is a masterpiece of high Victorian Gothic architecture. Come and explore this intriguing building and its beautiful grounds and woodland, and take a tour to discover the stories that lie behind its grand facade.
This place has played different roles through time. It was a theological college for an Anglican Order of Monks in the early s and played an important role in the Second World War. Take our Secret Lives of Kelham Hall tour and local historians will reveal these stories and more about Kelham's previous inhabitants and incarnations. In summer, you can take another guided tour, this time in the grounds, along the River Trent, which runs through the property. Then reward yourself with afternoon tea in our elegant State Rooms. A staunchly Royalist town in the s, the struggle to control Newark was a defining moment in the English Civil War.
Our Augmented Reality Trails tell Civil War stories via apps that trigger Hollywood-style film clips at different locations around the museum. Immerse yourself in the degree panoramic of Newark Castle during the Civil War, and try the action-packed interactive game. Come and explore this ancient place and its lovely gardens. Visit during summer and you can also take in one of the free concerts and festivals we hold in the grounds. With the largest gateway of any castle in England, our imposing 12th-century fortress once belonged to King John. It was here that the reluctant signatory of the Magna Carta died in For more than 20 years we've been welcoming overnight guests to our family home, a lovely 17th-century cottage.
And many visitors return regularly to savour the peace and quiet, beautiful views and relaxing atmosphere. Choose between four tastefully appointed en-suite bedrooms, two in the main house and two in the converted barn, all combining old-world charm with modern facilities. Relax in comfort and enjoy a quiet night's sleep, then wake to the sound of birdsong in the morning, before tucking into our delicious, healthy breakfast, freshly cooked and featuring eggs from our own hens.
Suitably set up for the day, you can then head off into the surrounding countryside to discover a slice of rural England that has remained virtually unchanged for centuries. We're always happy to point you in the direction of our favourite attractions and good local places to eat, including some excellent country pubs that are just a short drive or pleasant walk away. Alternatively, take advantage of the dining area in our large summerhouse and order in a take-away meal to enjoy here at home.
Easton has been in our family for more than years and is a superlative example of an English country garden. Packed with scented flowers, we're a acre sanctuary set deep in the folds of rolling Lincolnshire countryside which President Franklin D Roosevelt described as "a dream of Nirvana Over the centuries, the Cholmeley family and their gardeners created a park, moved a river and built bridges, walls and ornamental outbuildings.
The garden layout is largely Tudor and Jacobean and even survived the destruction of the house following requisition by the army during WWII. By the mid's, with walls collapsing and every building at risk, we began our restoration project with clearing and planting. Reborn in the 21st century, the gardens have transformed from a work in progress to a working garden, with a turf maze, yew tunnel, unusual rose garden and cut flower and vegetable gardens to explore, alongside a fruiting orchard, orchid meadows and 20, spring flowering bulbs.
A traditional rural estate, Easton also offers boutique self-catering, where guests can enjoy the gardens once the public visitors have left for the day, and a beauty therapy room where our experienced beautician offers treatments such as facials, massage and reflexology. For a modest Lincolnshire town, Grantham packs quite a punch with its prodigal sons and daughters; 17th-century scientist Isaac Newton was born in nearby Woolsthorpe By Colsterworth and the late British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher was born and raised here.
Find out about her early life in the town and her rise through the political world, which would change the course of the UK. Look out for a copy of Principia, his death mask and an interactive map showing places he would have known that you can still see in the modern town.
Set in formal Italian and Dutch gardens with views across an ancient deer park, Belton House is described as the quintessential English country house. With its symmetry and stately elegance, the former home of the Brownlow and Cust families set the standard for architects of grand estates across the country.
In spring, daffodils and pale-yellow primroses carpet the fields, giving way to bluebells in May. First built on land gifted by William the Conqueror, this is the fourth iteration of a fortification on the site — and a confection of sumptuous rooms, gardens and sweeping parkland. A 16km perimeter walk encircles two square kilometres of gardens, 61, sq m of lakes and a vast parkland designed by the 18th-century horticulturalist Capability Brown.
We offer bespoke tours on request — or you could just stride out and enjoy his naturalistic style for yourself. The hot tickets are the tours of the private side of the castle, which are held periodically through the open season. Head to the Engine Yard, a community hub where local artisans sell their products. Stock up on cheese, plants and clothing or watch a talk or food demonstration.
For centuries, this was a staging post for coaches travelling along The Explorer's Road, now it's a restful place for you to stay the night. Stop here and you'll be following in the footsteps of royalty: our inn has welcomed many monarchs over the years, including Richard lll, who signed the death warrant for the Duke of Buckingham, his rebellious cousin, in what is now Kings Room restaurant. Then retire to one of our 31 bedrooms, each different some have four-poster beds but all equipped with every mod-con a 21st-century traveller would expect.
It's a great base from which to explore this pretty little corner of the country, with Lincolnshire's lovely landscapes, grand country homes and gardens, peaceful woodland walks and riverside strolls on our doorstep. Experience a quintessential English village pub and a true taste of life in the heart of a rural community. The Bull Inn is the ideal place to call in to after a country walk or after visiting one of the many Lincolnshire based attractions. Our friendly inn is loved by locals and visitors alike.
We offer a wide choice of real ales on tap and great pub grub, including a traditional English Sunday lunch in our carvery. You will always be made very welcome and we are both child and dog friendly. It was here that local farmer, Henry Burtt, came up with the idea for the world's longest-running soap opera, The Archers. Now in its 68th year, this BBC radio show is a British institution, and its fictional pub is also called The Bull, just like our own inn.
Stay a while longer by checking in to one of our five bedrooms - we've single, double and triple rooms. Rippingale is a great base from which to visit Grimsthorpe Castle, Lincoln and Peterborough Cathedrals, and directly opposite our inn is the parish church of St Andrew, which contains relics dating back to the Crusades.
Dating back to , Oakham Castle is the finest surviving example of Norman domestic architecture in Europe and has the most complete Norman Great Hall in England. Grand banquets and court gatherings, attended by nobles and kings, were once held under its soaring, wood-beamed roof; today, it's a grand venue for free family discovery and fun.
The Castle is known for its astonishing collection of huge golden ceremonial horseshoes, some up to 5ft tall, donated over the centuries by Royalty and Peers of the Realm. Learn more from our team of volunteer guides, who will fill you in on the castle's 12th-century sculptures and its history of crime and punishment - court sittings have been taking place here since , and still continue to this day, making the Castle one of the longest continuously running courts in the country.
Find the Castle just off Oakham's Market Place, where Castle Lane leads to a 2-acre peaceful grassy enclosure which is ideal for picnics. Visitors can park for 2 hours free of charge. Our garden areas range from traditional English cottage gardens, to wildlife, Japanese and French, as well as ample spaces for growing vegetables and fruit.
Our focus is on environmental and ecological gardening, so we use organic and peat-free principles. To maximise the Garden's educational potential there are courses and events running throughout the year. Our Summer Sundays take place during July and August and events are free participation once in the Gardens. On a lovely sunny day, with the wide variety of birds found in the Gardens singing away there is no need to rush, as you ticket allows you to be here all day.
Our Chelsea Flower Show, Gold Medal-winning plant nursery will tempt you to take home a little piece of green-fingered magic, while our Tea Room serves locally sourced, freshly prepared food to feed and revitalise you. Subscribe to Buffalo Rising Digest We send fresh and beautiful content to your inbox regularly -- you set the delivery frequency. Plus, you'll enjoy access to our premium newsletter when it becomes available. Email address. First Name. Last Name. Delivery Frequency daily weekly monthly.
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