Tropical fruit pests and pollinators : biology, economic importance, natural enemies, and control

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View events that we are attending here. Our customers have not yet submitted a review for this title - click here to be the first to write a review. Insects and other pests cause major economic damage on fruit crops in the tropics; others are beneficial pollinators. This book reviews these harmful and beneficial organisms and how they can be controlled to enhance fruit production and quality. B - World crop pests; 2B. Fruit flies. Their biology, natural enemies and control.

World Crop Pests, 3B i-xv, , World Crop Pests; Soft scale insects their biology, natural enemies and control. World crop pests vol 4a armored scale insects their biology natural enemies and control. Armored scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control, vol. A - World crop pests; 4A. Tropical fruit pests and pollinators. Common Varieties. Market and International Trade.

Research and Development. Diseases: Mango suffers from several diseases at all stages of its life. All the parts of the plant, namely, trunk, branch, twig, leaf, petiole, flower and fruit are attacked by a number of pathogens including fungi, bacteria and algae.

Tropical Fruit Pests and Pollinators: Biology, Economic Importance, Natural - Google книги

They cause several kinds of rot, die back, anthracnose, scab, necrosis, blotch, spots, mildew, etc. Some of these diseases like powdery mildew are of great economic importance as they cause heavy losses in mango production. Major diseases of mango and their control measures are discussed below. Anthracnose Colletotrichum state of Glomerella cingulata Ston, Spaull and Schrenk : The anthracnose disease is of widespread occurrence.

The disease causes serious losses to young shoots, flowers and fruits under favorable climatic conditions of high humidity, frequent rains and a temperature of oC. It is also affects fruits during storage. The disease produces leaf spot, blossom blight, wither tip, twig blight and fruit rot symptoms. Older twigs may also be infected through wounds which in severe cases may be fatal. Depending on the prevailing weather conditions blossom blight may vary in severity from slight to a heavy infection of the panicles. Black spots develop on panicles as well as on fruits.

Severe infection destroys the entire inflorescence resulting in no setting of fruits. Young infected fruits develop black spots, shrivel and drop off. Fruits infected at mature stage carry the fungus into storage and cause considerable loss during storage, transit and marketing. The fungus perpetuates on twigs and leaves of mango or other hosts.

Since the fungus has a long saprophytic survival ability on dead twigs, the diseased twigs should be pruned and burnt along with fallen leaves for reducing the inoculum potential. Control: Trees may be sprayed twice with Bavistin 0. Spraying of copper fungicides 0. Sooty mould Meliola mangiferae : The disease is common in the orchards where mealy bug, scale insect and hopper are not controlled efficiently. The disease in the field is recognized by the presence of a black velvety coating i.

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In severe cases the trees turn completely black due to the presence of mould over the entire surface of twigs and leaves. The severity of infection depends on the honey dew secretion by the above said insects. Honey dew secretions from insects sticks to the leaf surface and provide necessary medium for fungal growth. The fungus is essentially saprophytic and is non-pathogenic because it does not derive nutrients from the host tissues. Although no direct damage is caused by the fungus, the photosynthetic activity of the leaf is adversely affected due to blockage of stomata.

Control: Pruning of affected branches and their prompt destruction prevents the spread of the disease. Postharvest Diseases: The mango fruit is susceptible to many postharvest diseases caused by anthracnose C. Aspergillus rot is another postharvest disease of mango. Control: Pre-harvest sprays of fungicides could control the diseases caused by latent infection of these fungi. Postharvest dip treatment of fruits with fungicides could also control the diseases during storage.

Three sprays of carbendazim 0. Postharvest dip treatment of fruits in carbendazim 0.

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More than species of insects, 17 species of mites and 26 species of nematodes have been reported to be infesting mango trees. Almost a dozen of them have been found damaging the crop to a considerable extent causing severe losses and, therefore, may be termed as major pests of mango. These are hopper, mealy bug, inflorescence midge, fruit fly, scale insect, shoot borer, leaf webber and stone weevil. Of these, insects infesting the crop during flowering and fruiting periods cause more severe damage.

The insects other than those indicated above are considered as less injurious to mango crop and are placed in the category of minor pests. A brief description of the biology and control of major pests of mango is given below. Hopper: Of all the mango pests, hopper is considered as the most serious and widespread pest. Idioscopus clypealis Lethierry , Idioscopus nitidulus Walker and Amritodus atkinsoni Lethierry are the most common and destructive species of hoppers which cause heavy damage to mango crop. Large number of nymphs and adult insects puncture and suck the sap of tender parts, thereby reducing the vigor of the plants.

Heavy puncturing and continuous draining of the sap cause curling and drying of the infested tissue. They also damage the crop by secreting a sweet sticky substance which encourages the development of the fungus Maliola mangiferae , commonly known as sooty mould which affects adversely the photosynthetic activities of the leaves. Shade and high humidity conditions are favorable for their multiplication. Such conditions usually prevail in old, neglected and closely planted orchards. The female hoppers lay eggs on mid rib of tender leaves, buds and inflorescence.

In summers the total life cycle occupies weeks. First spray should be given at the early stage of panicle formation. The second spray at full length stage of panicles but before full bloom and the third spray after the fruits are set and have attained pea stage are recommended. Spraying of Nimbicidine 0. Chemical spray is to be minimized whenever necessary.

The use of insect growth regulator Buprofezin 0. Besides, the high cost of pesticides, labor and maintenance of equipments are other limiting factors in pest control. Integrated pest management is gaining momentum to take care of these problems. To manage mango hopper pest, avoid dense planting and keep the orchard clean by regular ploughing and removal of weeds.

Pruning of overcrowding and over lapping branches should be done on a regular basis. Nymph predators Mallada boninensis and Chrysopa lacciperda and egg parasite Polynema sp.