Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases

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An additional or separate safety and health program is not required by this paragraph.

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The program shall be designed to identify, evaluate, and control safety and health hazards, and provide for emergency response for hazardous waste operations. Site excavations created during initial site preparation or during hazardous waste operations shall be shored or sloped as appropriate to prevent accidental collapse in accordance with Subpart P of 29 CFR Part An employer who retains contractor or sub-contractor services for work in hazardous waste operations shall inform those contractors, sub-contractors, or their representatives of the site emergency response procedures and any potential fire, explosion, health, safety or other hazards of the hazardous waste operation that have been identified by the employer's information program.

The written safety and health program shall be made available to any contractor or subcontractor or their representative who will be involved with the hazardous waste operation; to employees; to employee designated representatives; to OSHA personnel, and to personnel of other Federal, state, or local agencies with regulatory authority over the site.

It shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:. The comprehensive workplan part of the program shall address the tasks and objectives of the site operations and the logistics and resources required to reach those tasks and objectives. The site safety and health plan, which must be kept on site, shall address the safety and health hazards of each phase of site operation and include the requirements and procedures for employee protection.

The site safety and health plan, as a minimum, shall address the following:. The site specific safety and health plan shall provide for pre-entry briefings to be held prior to initiating any site activity, and at such other times as necessary to ensure that employees are apprised of the site safety and health plan and that this plan is being followed. The information and data obtained from site characterization and analysis work required in paragraph c of this section shall be used to prepare and update the site safety and health plan.

Inspections shall be conducted by the site safety and health supervisor or, in the absence of that individual, another individual who is knowledgeable in occupational safety and health, acting on behalf of the employer as necessary to determine the effectiveness of the site safety and health plan. Any deficiencies in the effectiveness of the site safety and health plan shall be corrected by the employer. Hazardous waste sites shall be evaluated in accordance with this paragraph to identify specific site hazards and to determine the appropriate safety and health control procedures needed to protect employees from the identified hazards.

A preliminary evaluation of a site's characteristics shall be performed prior to site entry by a qualified person in order to aid in the selection of appropriate employee protection methods prior to site entry. Immediately after initial site entry, a more detailed evaluation of the site's specific characteristics shall be performed by a qualified person in order to further identify existing site hazards and to further aid in the selection of the appropriate engineering controls and personal protective equipment for the tasks to be performed.


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All suspected conditions that may pose inhalation or skin absorption hazards that are immediately dangerous to life or health IDLH or other conditions that may cause death or serious harm shall be identified during the preliminary survey and evaluated during the detailed survey.

Examples of such hazards include, but are not limited to, confined space entry, potentially explosive or flammable situations, visible vapor clouds, or areas where biological indicators such as dead animals or vegetation are located. The following information to the extent available shall be obtained by the employer prior to allowing employees to enter a site:.

Personal protective equipment PPE shall be provided and used during initial site entry in accordance with the following requirements:. If there is no permissible exposure limit or published exposure level, the employer may use other published studies and information as a guide to appropriate personal protective equipment. See Appendix B for guidelines on Level B protective equipment. The following monitoring shall be conducted during initial site entry when the site evaluation produces information which shows the potential for ionizing radiation or IDLH conditions, or when the site information is not sufficient reasonably to eliminate these possible conditions:.

Once the presence and concentrations of specific hazardous substances and health hazards have been established, the risks associated with these substances shall be identified. Employees who will be working on the site shall be informed of any risks that have been identified. Any information concerning the chemical, physical, and toxicologic properties of each substance known or expected to be present on site that is available to the employer and relevant to the duties an employee is expected to perform shall be made available to the affected employees prior to the commencement of their work activities.

The employer may utilize information developed for the hazard communication standard for this purpose. Appropriate site control procedures shall be implemented to control employee exposure to hazardous substances before clean-up work begins. A site control program for protecting employees which is part of the employer's site safety and health program required in paragraph b of this section shall be developed during the planning stages of a hazardous waste clean-up operation and modified as necessary as new information becomes available.

The training shall thoroughly cover the following:. On-site management and supervisors directly responsible for, or who supervise employees engaged in, hazardous waste operations shall receive 40 hours initial training, and three days of supervised field experience the training may be reduced to 24 hours and one day if the only area of their responsibility is employees covered by paragraphs e 3 ii and e 3 iii and at least eight additional hours of specialized training at the time of job assignment on such topics as, but not limited to, the employer's safety and health program and the associated employee training program, personal protective equipment program, spill containment program, and health hazard monitoring procedure and techniques.

Trainers shall be qualified to instruct employees about the subject matter that is being presented in training. Such trainers shall have satisfactorily completed a training program for teaching the subjects they are expected to teach, or they shall have the academic credentials and instructional experience necessary for teaching the subjects.

Instructors shall demonstrate competent instructional skills and knowledge of the applicable subject matter. Employees and supervisors that have received and successfully completed the training and field experience specified in paragraphs e 1 through e 4 of this section shall be certified by their instructor or the head instructor and trained supervisor as having completed the necessary training.

A written certificate shall be given to each person so certified. Any person who has not been so certified or who does not meet the requirements of paragraph e 9 of this section shall be prohibited from engaging in hazardous waste operations. Employees who are engaged in responding to hazardous emergency situations at hazardous waste clean-up sites that may expose them to hazardous substances shall be trained in how to respond to such expected emergencies. However, certified employees or employees with equivalent training new to a site shall receive appropriate, site specific training before site entry and have appropriate supervised field experience at the new site.

Equivalent training includes any academic training or the training that existing employees might have already received from actual hazardous waste site experience. Employees engaged in operations specified in paragraphs a 1 i through a 1 iv of this section and not covered by a 2 iii exceptions and employers of employees specified in paragraph q 9 shall institute a medical surveillance program in accordance with this paragraph. The medical surveillance program shall be instituted by the employer for the following employees:.

Medical examinations and consultations shall be made available by the employer to each employee covered under paragraph f 2 of this section on the following schedules:. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, preferably one knowledgeable in occupational medicine, and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

The employer shall provide one copy of this standard and its appendices to the attending physician and in addition the following for each employee:. This record shall be retained for the period specified and meet the criteria of 29 CFR Work practices which may be feasible are removing all non-essential employees from potential exposure during opening of drums, wetting down dusty operations and locating employees upwind of possible hazards.

An appropriate combination of engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment shall be used to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below published exposure levels for hazardous substances and health hazards not regulated by 29 CFR Part , Subparts G and Z. The employer may use the published literature and SDS as a guide in making the employer's determination as to what level of protection the employer believes is appropriate for hazardous substances and health hazards for which there is no permissible exposure limit or published exposure limit.

See Appendix A for a test method which may be used to evaluate this requirement. A personal protective equipment program, which is part of the employer's safety and health program required in paragraph b of this section or required in paragraph p 1 of this section and which isalso a part of the site-specific safety and health plan shall be established. The PPE program shall address the elements listed below. When elements, such as donning and doffing procedures, are provided by the manufacturer of a piece of equipment and are attached to the plan, they need not be rewritten into the plan as long as they adequately address the procedure or element.

Introduction to HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Upon initial entry, representative air monitoring shall be conducted to identify any IDLH condition, exposure over permissible exposure limits or published exposure levels, exposure over a radioactive material's dose limits or other dangerous condition such as the presence of flammable atmospheres, oxygen-deficient environments. Periodic monitoring shall be conducted when the possibility of an IDLH condition or flammable atmosphere has developed or when there is indication that exposures may have risen over permissible exposure limits or published exposure levels since prior monitoring.

Situations where it shall be considered whether the possibility that exposures have risen are as follows:. After the actual clean-up phase of any hazardous waste operation commences; for example, when soil, surface water or containers are moved or disturbed; the employer shall monitor those employees likely to have the highest exposures to those hazardous substances and health hazards likely to be present above permissible exposure limits or published exposure levels by using personal sampling frequently enough to characterize employee exposures.

The employer may utilize a representative sampling approach by documenting that the employees and chemicals chosen for monitoring are based on the criteria stated in the first sentence of this paragraph. If the employees likely to have the highest exposure are over permissible exposure limits or published exposure limits, then monitoring shall continue to determine all employees likely to be above those limits. The employer may utilize a representative sampling approach by documenting that the employees and chemicals chosen for monitoring are based on the criteria stated above. Drums or containers that cannot be inspected before being moved because of storage conditions i.

Department of Transportation specified salvage drums or containers and suitable quantities of proper absorbent shall be kept available and used in areas where spills, leaks, or ruptures may occur. The following procedures shall be followed in areas where drums or containers are being opened:.

If pressure cannot be relieved from a remote location, appropriate shielding shall be placed between the employee and the drums or containers to reduce the risk of employee injury. Material handling equipment used to transfer drums and containers shall be selected, positioned and operated to minimize sources of ignition related to the equipment from igniting vapors released from ruptured drums or containers. Drums and containers containing radioactive wastes shall not be handled until such time as their hazard to employees is properly assessed.


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  7. As a minimum, the following special precautions shall be taken when drums and containers containing or suspected of containing shock-sensitive wastes are handled:. Communication equipment or methods that could cause shock sensitive materials to explode shall not be used. Caution: Shipping of shock sensitive wastes may be prohibited under U. Department of Transportation regulations. Employers and their shippers should refer to 49 CFR In addition to the requirements of paragraph j 5 of this section, the following precautions shall be taken, as a minimum, in handling laboratory waste packs lab packs :.

    Sampling of containers and drums shall be done in accordance with a sampling procedure which is part of the site safety and health plan developed for and available to employees and others at the specific worksite. Procedures for all phases of decontamination shall be developed and implemented in accordance with this paragraph. When such procedures are found to be ineffective, appropriate steps shall be taken to correct any deficiencies. Decontamination shall be performed in geographical areas that will minimize the exposure of uncontaminated employees or equipment to contaminated employees or equipment.

    All equipment and solvents used for decontamination shall be decontaminated or disposed of properly.


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    The clothing shall be disposed of or decontaminated before it is removed from the work zone. Unauthorized employees shall not remove protective clothing or equipment from change rooms. Commercial laundries or cleaning establishments that decontaminate protective clothing or equipment shall be informed of the potentially harmful effects of exposures to hazardous substances. Where the decontamination procedure indicates a need for regular showers and change rooms outside of a contaminated area, they shall be provided and meet the requirements of 29 CFR If temperature conditions prevent the effective use of water, then other effective means for cleansing shall be provided and used.

    The plan shall be in writing and available for inspection and copying by employees, their representatives, OSHA personnel and other governmental agencies with relevant responsibilities. The employer shall develop an emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum, the following:. Mine Safety and Health Administration approved cap lights shall be acceptable for use in the tunnel heading.

    Water shall not be dipped from containers.

    Preparing Your Company for a Hazardous Materials Spill

    More than 20, fewer than One toilet seat and 1 urinal per 40 employees. More than One toilet seat and 1 urinal per 50 employees. All food service facilities and operations for employees shall meet the applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations of the jurisdictions in which they are located. When temporary sleeping quarters are provided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted. The employer shall provide adequate washing facilities for employees engaged in operations where hazardous substances may be harmful to employees.

    Such facilities shall be in near proximity to the worksite; in areas where exposures are below permissible exposure limits and which are under the controls of the employer; and shall be so equipped as to enable employees to remove hazardous substances from themselves. When hazardous waste clean-up or removal operations commence on a site and the duration of the work will require six months or greater time to complete, the employer shall provide showers and change rooms for all employees exposed to hazardous substances and health hazards involved in hazardous waste clean-up or removal operations.

    Change rooms shall consist of two separate change areas separated by the shower area required in paragraph n 7 i of this section. One change area, with an exit leading off the worksite, shall provide employees with a clean area where they can remove, store, and put on street clothing. The second area, with an exit to the worksite, shall provide employees with an area where they can put on, remove and store work clothing and personal protective equipment. If this cannot be accomplished, then a ventilation system shall be provided that will supply air that is below the permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels.

    Such an evaluation shall be done to determine the effectiveness of the new methods, materials, or equipment before implementing their use on a large scale for enhancing employee protection. Information and data from manufacturers or suppliers may be used as part of the employer's evaluation effort. Such evaluations shall be made available to OSHA upon request. The employer shall develop and implement a written safety and health program for employees involved in hazardous waste operations that shall be available for inspection by employees, their representatives and OSHA personnel.

    Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases - Knovel

    The program shall be designed to identify, evaluate and control safety and health hazards in their facilities for the purpose of employee protection, to provide for emergency response meeting the requirements of paragraph p 8 of this section and to address as appropriate site analysis, engineering controls, maximum exposure limits, hazardous waste handling procedures and uses of new technologies.

    The employer shall implement a hazard communication program meeting the requirements of 29 CFR The employer shall develop and implement a medical surveillance program meeting the requirements of paragraph f of this section. The employer shall develop and implement a decontamination procedure meeting the requirements of paragraph k of this section.

    The employer shall develop and implement procedures meeting the requirements of paragraph o of this section for introducing new and innovative equipment into the workplace. Where employees will be handling drums or containers, the employer shall develop and implement procedures meeting the requirements of paragraphs j 1 ii through viii and xi of this section, as well as j 3 and j 8 of this section prior to starting such work. The employer shall develop and implement a training program which is part of the employer's safety and health program, for employees exposed to health hazards or hazardous substances at TSD operations to enable the employees to perform their assigned duties and functions in a safe and healthful manner so as not to endanger themselves or other employees.

    The initial training shall be for 24 hours and refresher training shall be for eight hours annually. Employees who have received the initial training required by this paragraph shall be given a written certificate attesting that they have successfully completed the necessary training. Continuous sensor monitoring can detect catastrophic chemical releases early enough to curb extreme amounts of damage. In several notable instances, such monitors have not been used appropriately, or have fallen short of what they should have been capable of delivering.

    This book provides the technical background and guidance needed to get the most from this emerging technique and details the essentials of preparing any workplace from falling victim to a gas-leak catastrophe. About The Author. Since , the Center For Chemical Process Safety CCPS has been the world leader in developing and disseminating information on process safety management and technology.

    Select Parent Grandparent Teacher Kid at heart. Age of the child I gave this to:. Hours of Play:. Tell Us Where You Are:. Preview Your Review. Thank you. Your review has been submitted and will appear here shortly. Extra Content. I e]1?? Qb 9Ce??? Oqd D? Mvw "? Table of Contents 1. Sensor Technology.