Film Studies: The Basics (2nd Edition)

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It is contrasted to the power of society to control the actions, attitudes and free thinking of individuals. Bricolage: The rearrangement of cultural elements and styles in order to produce new meanings and styles. For example, the reassignment of denim cloth, originally used in the US prison system, into a teenage fashion style; the reworking of African rhythms, Caribbean music, rhyming couplet poetry and talking blues to form rap music rhythm and poetry.

Capitalism: The economic system based on trade and private ownership that begins in Europe in the Middle Ages and flourishes during the modern period from the seventeenth century. Class social class : Capitalism inevitably produces differentials in power and financial success. Karl Marx argued that there are two principal classes of people in a modern, industrial society: the bourgeoisie middle class who own capital and property ; and the proletariat who have nothing to sell except their labour.

While Marx was describing the developed societies of the nineteenth century, recent commentators argue that class is more diffuse and complex. Even so, in most modern societies there exists a very small group of people who are extremely wealthy, and a much larger group who are quite poor. Between these extremes is a broad social group often called the middle class. Codes: A code is a meaning system which may be based on language, images, colour, sounds, music, etc.

Coded meanings may be clear, broadly shared and understood, and literal e. A code may also be subtle, restricted and abstruse e. Commodification: The idea that capitalism is taking over all aspects of social life, converting everything into a form of commercial product or commodity. Colonial administration was supported by a symbolic conquest through which the invaders imposed their culture over the invaded group. The concept of cultural imperialism suggests that powerful nations like the US are able to dominate global cultural markets with their information, news, media, fashion and styles.

Through these products, cultural imperialists are able to influence disproportionately the ideas, ideology, belief systems and overall culture of other nations. Cultural materialism: A theory of culture that draws on Marxism and anthropology to explain social inequality. In particular, cultural materialism suggests that the uneven distribution of cultural materials products and artefacts in a society is directly linked to differences in social power and access to the resources of meaning-making.

Cultural materialists seek to understand the mechanisms used by powerful groups in a society e. This theory is often associated with Raymond Williams and his followers. Culture: An assemblage of meanings which are generated and consumed by a given social group. Deconstruction: An analytical strategy pioneered by French philosopher Jacques Derrida which focuses on the historical and cultural assumptions that inform a belief system and its discourses language. For Derrida and his disciples, the core of every belief system is ultimately constructed around these assumptions.

In Western civilization such assumptions are formed in a language that is fundamentally binary in structure e. Diaspora: Originally referring to the dispersal of Jews across Europe, diaspora now refers to any human group that has no clearly defined homeland. Many of today's refugees, for example, may be seen as part of a new global diaspora.

Digitopia: A utopia formed around digital technology. Digitopians are those individuals and communities who believe that digital, computer based technologies will provide the answer to the world's political and social problems. Both knowledge and the meaning system are formed through relationships of power. Emancipatory Politics liberational politics : Since its inception, cultural studies has been interested in issues of power, hierarchy and social inequality. In its recent incarnations, some areas of cultural studies have been focusing on individual subject's potential for personal emancipation through new expressive modes of pleasure, creativity and self-actualization.

This approach to emancipation believes that freedom is only possible through the liberation of subjects from all fixed structural forms. Epistemology: The study of knowledge - what it is and how we acquire it. This was a central focus of philosophy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. From this period, however, epistemology has been supplemented by an interest in the way knowledge is shaped by language. Essentialism see ontology below Globalization: Process of increasing contact between people from different nations and cultural backgrounds.

It is usually identified as a modern process which has been accelerating over the past fifty years as a result of increased volumes of trade and new forms of global communication. Governmentality: A concept established by Michel Foucault and used by a number of more recent cultural analysts. Governmentality describes the broadly distributed strategies and techniques that modern societies employ to manage complex relationships and material conditions.

While recent analysts often use the term in relation to government and policy processes, Foucault refers to a much broader expanse of bureaucratic processes, material management and hierarchical systems in a society. Hegemony: This term was popularized by Antonio Gramsci.

As it has been more broadly applied in cultural studies, hegemony refers to an authority which is expressed through institutionally sanctioned meaning systems. This authority is not entirely closed, and people have the opportunity to [Page ] influence their leaders and their authority in a modern society. Hybridization hybridity : Globalization has brought different peoples and cultural elements into greater interaction and contiguity. Some theorists argue that this process is leading to greater global homogeneity, particularly as it is dominated by cultural superpowers like the United States.

However, others believe that this contiguity transforms older cultural elements, creating new and hybrid forms of culture. Bollywood, Asian Rap, vegetarian McDonalds.

2nd Edition

That is, contemporary culture is so dense with media texts and competing meanings that reality itself has been utterly transformed. For Baudrillard, in particular, a hyperreality is characterized by meaninglessness, or at least an agitated and dynamic process whereby everything is merely an imitation simulacrum of everything else. Identity: The way an individual sees him- or her-self, and projects that self into the world.

This concept marks a key debate in contemporary cultural studies. Some theorists believe that identity is rooted in deep history, culture and ethnicity; others believe that identity is almost entirely constructed in culture and discourse. The second suggests that individuals have a degree of choice about who they are and which cultural elements they wish to mobilize in order to express their identity. In effect, our individual identity is both conditioned by external forces, and by our own choices and sense of expressive agency.

Ideology: This is an extremely complex term which is frequently debated in cultural studies. At the simplest level it is a system of beliefs and attitudes which are formed politically by a given social group. Adapting the ideas of Karl Marx, however, Louis Althusser argues that ideology is really the mechanism by which powerful elites impose their own interests and beliefs over the masses in a given society.

It is the difference between [Page ] the things people believe about themselves and the real conditions of their lives. These powerful groups infuse their self-interest over the masses through the manipulation of a symbolic order. Media texts, government discourses, laws, education, information - all contribute to the formation of a dominant ideology. Intertextuality: According to Jacques Derrida, all texts are necessarily related to all other texts through the process of meaning deferral.

This simply means that the words that comprise a text are dependent upon prior and future meanings that are contained in other words. Marxism neo-Marxism : This is a set of ideas derived from the nineteenth century German philosopher and social theorist Karl Marx. Marxist theory focuses on the means of production, historical materialism, political economy and various forms of social inequality.

Marxian studies focus on the man himself, as opposed to his theories. In its original form, the public sphere was seen as the physical and cultural spaces in which citizens engage in political discussion, information sharing, decision making and electoral processes. It is not about private profit or pleasure, but public duty and democratic participation. With the emergence of mass media, the public sphere has been transformed through a new merging of private and public cultural spaces.

Political participation is now formed in relation to mediated texts, entertainments and information. The mediasphere represents the convergence of the public sphere with new forms of mass mediation. Ontology essentialism : This is a philosophical idea about the true and essential nature of things. Often the concept is applied to explain the essence of human nature, human spirit, [Page ] the cosmos, nature, identity or history.

Patriarchy: Feminists argue that social history is marked by a significant gender hierarchy by which males have dominated females. This patriarchal system is shaped by material divisions, law and cultural meanings which insist that women are inferior to men; the world has been shaped by this fundamental belief system and the interests and ideology of males. Performativity: The focus on social performance action which has been determined by culturally embedded discourses and laws.

For example, men will perform as men because they are obeying specific social rules and expectations that are continually confirmed through repetition in movies, sports programmes, television and social interactions, etc. Phallocentrism: A phallus is a symbolic penis. It represents the belief system that surrounds patriarchy and male political and cultural power. Phallocentricism refers to the subconscious male ego. Political economy: This concept is drawn from Karl Marx and usually refers to a critical framework for studying society.

This framework focuses on the interdependence of politics and economics as the core of social relationships and inequality. Polysemy: This concept was developed through semiotics see below. It is the idea that a sign unit of meaning may carry many potential meanings. However, the selection of a dominant meaning is generally shaped by dominant social groups.

This potential for multiple meanings is nevertheless subject to the dominant interests of, for example, the United States government and its cultural power. Thus, some feminists might argue that fashion magazines position teenage female readers, creating the urge to imitate thin, heavily made up, high consuming models. The text positions or situates the reader in terms of specific identities and ideologies capitalism, patriarchy and behaviours consuming, wearing make-up, dieting.

Postcolonialism: An analytical framework designed to explain the cultural and political experiences of peoples in formerly colonized territories. Such analyses usually point to the evolution of complex power relationships in countries that were once directly [Page ] administered by colonialists such as Britain, the US, France, Spain and Germany. They will study, for example, the contemporary experiences of indigenous people in countries like Australia and Canada.

The ethnic, racial and political disharmonies associated with colonization, foreign settlement and de-colonization in Africa, India and the Middle East are also common sites for postcolonial analysis. Post-Fordism: Henry Ford perfected the system of mass, assembly-line, industrial production Ford motor cars. Many historians believe that we have entered a new economic phase in which mass production has been replaced by flexible, low scale and creative industry typified by tourism, hospitality, media and information industries.

It is argued that this post-industrial society is characterized by flat management styles and a flexible, highly trained workforce. Postmodernism Postmodernity : Usually refers to a set of texts and ideas that are characterized by multiplicity of meanings and forms that are self-challenging and self-reflexive.

In particular, postmodernism challenges the notion of an integrated, modernist, unified and absolute truth. Postmodernity describes the historical phase in which postmodern ideas and texts are pre-eminent. A number of scholars argue that we have entered such a phase, claiming that time and space have been compressed and there is no overriding truth or reality in a globalized cultural context.

Poststructuralism: A philosophical idea which focuses on the way language shapes knowledge and power. Poststructuralism claims that meanings are dynamic, elusive and often unstable. Power is treated as a contingency of relationships, rather than as something that is historically fixed, as Marx claims. Reflexive reflexivity : This concept is associated with postmodernism.

It refers generally to a social or aesthetic perspective which reflects upon and challenges itself. Thus, in a multiple irony, reflexive text such as Mulholland Drive , the storytelling reflects on the processes of storytelling, narrative and creating film. Representation: The re-presentation of experience or phenomena in discourse and text.

Reality or more precisely meaning is [Page ] created through representation. This is why many cultural studies scholars treat everything as a potential text, including lived experience, bodies and nature as well as recognizable media texts in film, literature and television. Semiology has a more scientific demeanour and is centred in French scholarship. Signification signifiers, signifieds : Signification is the process of making meaning through sign systems. Signs are formed in any meaning system such as language, colour schemes like traffic lights and so on.

A sign is divided into the signifier the material sign such as a word or traffic light , and signifieds the mental concept or potential meaning to the signifier. Thus, in a sign such as red light on a traffic signal, the signifier is the bulb and colour red, while the signified is linked to the meaning of stop. Simulacra: Literally refers to simulations or imitations.

Jean Baudrillard uses the concept to explain his hyperreality in which everything is an imitation of everything else; thus, there is no distinct or valid meaning within a hyperreal cultural context. Society social formation : Society is the assemblage of people into a mass organizational unit, most often constituted in modern history around the nation-state.

Thus, the workers in a multi-national corporation, global Islam, or an intra-state ethnic community may be seen as a specific social formation. Structuralism: This concept most often refers to the idea that invisible social structures provide the essential framework of a society. Such structures are carried through history by durable institutions and their belief systems, ideology and fixed meanings.

Karl Marx, most famously, refers to social class as the primary and defining social structure of modern society. Many other social theorists have also seen society as being based upon social structures such as patriarchy and related institutions such as the family. A number of language theorists e. Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure believe that society is largely determined by the structures and recurring patterns that are inherent in all language.

Subcultures are usually seen as a distinctive and separate group with their own norms, beliefs, rules, clothing styles and cultural practices. Thus, analysts might append the notion of subculture to drug-user groups, motor cycle gangs, [Page ] criminals and so on. Subjectivity is thus formed in discourse and culture. It is the new focus of an emancipatory politics which encourages choice and the liberation of subjectivity from socially determined rules and prescribed beliefs and practices.

Televisualization televisual culture : As meaning production, dissemination and consumption are the central processes of culture, different cultures may thus be characterized in terms of their dominant communications technologies. The notion of a televisual culture refers to the pre-eminence of image-based mass mediation. Televisualization clearly affects the consciousness of individuals and hence their shared meaning-making and sense of reality.

A text may be related to particular media forms or publications as in film, television and literature. Landscapes, social practices and built environments may also be read and interpreted as texts. Adams , M. Adorno , T. Storey , ed. Afary , J. Alexander , J. Ali , T. Althusser , L.

Althusser , Lenin and Philosophy , trans. Brewster , New Left Books , London. Anderson , B. Ang , I. Appadurai , A. Featherstone , ed. Durham and D. Arac , J. Arnold , M. Attive , Z. Bacchi , C. Bakhtin , M. Emerson , Manchester University Press , Manchester. Barney , D. Barry , K. Barthes , R. Lavers and C. Smith , Jonathan Cape , London. Lavers , Paladin , St Albans. Miller , Hill and Wang , New York. Heath , Fontana , London. Barthes , B. Ward and R. Howard , University of California Press , Berkeley. Baudrillard , J. Poster , Telos Press , St Louis. Levin , Telos Press , St Louis.

Foss , S. Johnson and P. Pallon , Semiotext e , New York. Foster , ed. Foss , Semiotext e , New York. Wallis , ed. Singer , Culturetext , New York. Hamilton , Sage , London. Turner , Polity , Cambridge. Benedict , Verso , London. Turner , Sage , London. Turner , Verso , London. Bauman , Z. Becker , H. Bell , D. Benjamin , W. Zohn , Fontana , London. Bennett , T. Beechey and J. Bennett , C. Mercer and J. McGuigan , ed. During , ed.

Berger , P. Berger , R. Gauntlett and R. Horsley , eds, Web. Best , K. Best , S. Bhabha , H. Bhabha , ed. Okin and J. Cohen , eds, Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? Bleitch , D. Blount , M. Blumer , H. Bok , S. Boller , D. Tuman , ed. Bourdieu , P. Nice , Cambridge University Press , Cambridge. Mukerji and M. Bradbury , M. Brown , G. Lees , ed. Bryman , A. Buchbinder , D. Burchell , G. Burroughs , W. Butler , J. Berger , B. Wallis and S. Watson , eds, Constructing Masculinity , Routledge , London.

Carey , J. Carlyle , T. Castells , M. Caygill , H. Boyne and A. Chambers , I. Childs , K. Chitty , N. Chitty , R. Rush , and M. Choi , P. Chomsky , N. Cixous , H. Wing , University of Minnesota Press , Minneapolis. Clarke , D. Scott and D. Collins , J. Connor , S. Cornell , D. Cornell , R. Cowie , E. Crane , D. Crane , N.

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    • Goffman , E. Several forms of camera movement bear specific mention. When a camera rotates on its vertical axis — that is, when it remains stationary but for that rotation — we describe that movement as panning, frequently to scan a crowd or establish a vast space. When the camera is freed from a stationary position, it becomes mobile and reframes, of course, as it moves.

      Such mobile framing, then, involves a camera which is said to be traveling: dollying, when it rests on a dolly or some other The language of film form of wheeled contraption amateurs love wheelchairs, as they are cheap and accessible , tracking, when such a dolly travels on actual tracks laid on the set for that purpose, or, less frequently, trucking, as the camera rides on a truck or other vehicle on the ground. Such mobile framing can involve movement backward, forward, side to side, or around in circles, and can vary furthermore in terms of speed.

      When the camera leaves the ground, it is craning, frequently on an actual crane which lifts it from the ground to provide aerial perspective. One final aspect of the single shot that bears further mention before I move to the combination of shots through editing is the process shot or composite shot. These are created through the use of special effects in order to layer multiple images or strips of film into a single shot.

      The simple form of such layering can happen in the camera, by exposing a single strip of film twice or even multiple times, creating the effect of superimposition. Developed in the s in order to cut the costs of filming on location, rear projection involved the use of a translucent screen, onto which location footage was projected and in front of which the actors played out the scene meant to take place in that location. Scenes of cars driving in s cinema provide the paradigmatic example, the cause of mirth for spectators now who are alert to the unconvincing depth cues and mismatches in quality of image, lighting, and shadow that often characterize such composite shots.

      We think of them now, in other words, as cheesy. The answer to the degraded image projected from the rear 41 42 The language of film appeared to lie in eliminating the screen as a mediator from the process. Front projection replaced the screen with a concave mirror, and a projector placed in the same position the camera occupied, throwing the image thus created onto a highly reflective screen much improved with the invention in the s of Scotchlite, a reflective material invented and manufactured by 3M.

      Matte shots also combine multiple images into a single shot: static mattes, such as matte painting, replace a portion of the frame with an imaginary world superimposed upon it, while traveling mattes, frequently created through bluescreen processes, allow the actors to interact with the imported setting. Within a single shot, worlds combine. Very few films, not even Wavelength, contain only a single shot, however; most join many, many shots together. Aleksandr BOX 2. Used most routinely by television weathermen and women and parodied hilariously in Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy [Adam McKay, ] , bluescreen works well for human subjects because human skin has very little blue or green color in it, and computer-generated weather maps easily substitute as the background plate.

      Inventor Petro Vlahos founded his company Ultimatte to build upon his original version of bluescreen processes and is now producing sophisticated compositing hardware and software for the film industry. Editing is the general term designating the techniques and logic of joining shots together into larger strings or sequences; there are five different types of edits.

      The most common is the cut, in which the first shot cleanly ends where the second begins; the shots are spliced together using tape or cement. A dissolve joins two shots together by blending them, so that the end of the first shot and the beginning of the second shot are superimposed upon the screen for a period of time specified by the filmmaker to the laboratory.

      A fade may work in either of two directions: a fade-in lightens a shot from a black or otherwise colored screen, while a fade-out darkens to black. Fades often open and close films: fade to black, the end. The fourth type of edit, a wipe, involves a boundary line replacing the first shot with the second: it may be vertical or horizontal or some other sort of whimsical graphic.

      Most films, for instance, conjoin shots of differing lengths together, but some films, and some sequences within films, create patterns of combination, producing recognizable rhythms with varying effects. Foreshortening shots can build momentum or suspense, for instance, 43 44 The language of film while lengthening them can allow for release, meditation, or contemplation. Abstract films rely almost entirely on rhythmic editing and graphic editing to build their temporal and spatial worlds, while principles of graphic combination drive only some decisions in narrative films although any juxtaposition of one image to another creates a graphic relationship between them.

      In narrative films, the temporal and spatial logics of combination tend to predominate, since narrative films build imaginary worlds that are more or less coherent in space and time. The continuity, in other words, is produced by and through film itself, an illusion, similar to the illusion of movement produced through the persistence of vision, first discovered before by the Soviet filmmaker Lev Kuleshov.

      The broader point, however, is that audiences create connections and combinations from fragments, retrospectively generating cause and effect logics or explanations where none was on offer, or creating continuous space from discrete images. Even in the presence of an establishing shot, such as that of an office building in Los Angeles in Speed, which precedes a sequence in which office workers go about their business, there is no reason to believe that the offices are located in that building in the actual world. That sequence in Speed is an example of a pattern common in commercial narrative film: establishment, breakdown, reestablishment.

      In this pattern, the film offers a locale, the space in which action is to occur, and subsequently breaks down the space into its component parts, and then re-establishes the locale before moving to a different space. Another pattern, used to suggest simultaneous action in different spaces, is cross-cutting, or parallel editing, that moves from the action in one space to the action in another and back and forth. For narrative films present us with stories that take place over centuries, over decades, over years, over weeks, over days.

      Few films, that is, unwind in real time, in which screen time corresponds precisely to plot and story time. Those swaths constitute temporal ellipses, and temporal editing is both what controls them and what renders plot time intelligible for viewers. Temporal editing, then, is not simply to do with the ordering of events in the plot, though filmmakers do, of course, make decisions about the sequencing of events, the use of flashbacks in which events that took place in the plot past are interwoven with those of the plot present and flashforwards the opposite case.

      Like framing, temporal editing invokes exciting questions about inclusion and exclusion, about what kind of cut in time the film seeks to make. Austrian avant-garde filmmaker Peter Kubelka remarks of his two-minute 45 46 The language of film Adebar a structural study of dancers at a Vienna disco set to Pygmy music that it is a film not to be studied for its meaning but rather memorized; his interest lies in an interval without beginning or end but which is nonetheless seized and experienced as a temporal unfolding.

      Most narrative films, by contrast, rely on very explicit beginnings, middles, and ends, and, as I have been suggesting, obey certain conventions in order to keep spectators oriented in time and space so that the narrative may unfold without distraction. The last area that therefore requires discussion with regard to editing, particularly the spatial and temporal editing I have been discussing, is the system of continuity editing, the name for the ensemble of those conventions solidified over time and so naturalized that one frequently only observes it as a system when it is violated.

      To preserve spatial continuity, editors rely upon patterns such as the establishment, breakdown, re-establishment pattern, but they also build spatial relationships through the maintenance of perspective on the action as it unfolds. Now film all of the action on one side of your line, on one side of the axis of action: each time the master kicks, she will move from screen left, unless we see her switch places with the challenger. Each time the challenger jumps, he will jump from screen right, with the same exception. Similarly also to the pattern of breaking down space, conversations between characters follow patterns, in which two characters appear in a shot together before an editor will alternate shots of individual characters, returning now and again to the two-shot.

      This shot—reverse shot pattern reminds the spectator that the characters, even if shown alone, occupy the same space or have a virtual connection, so that telephone conversations work through cross-cutting. And if a character looks toward space that is offscreen, an eyeline match dictates that the next shot will show us what the character there sees, uniting expanding screen space and locating characters within it simultaneously. In a match on action, the following shot finds us inside the home, watching the guest enter the hallway.

      The goal, again: to orient, to allay anxiety over discontinuity that might detract from the story. Continuity editing also works to dispel worries about temporal ellipses. Explicit cues signal shifts in time. The passage of time forward also follows conventions in the use of edits: cuts tend to suggest continuous, linear action unfolding in time, whereas dissolves and, more dramatically, fades move us from an evening to a morning, or from one week to another. Props help, of course: the old fan-blowing-on-a-calendar trick helped to communicate the passage of significant amounts of time, just as the bold LED display on a ticking bomb helps us understand just how much time our hero has to defuse it.

      There is, no doubt, a certain pleasure in mastery involved in noticing a window magically intact after being shattered in the previous shot, a knowingness that is perhaps augmented by the additional awareness of the vast sums of money spent in the making of films meant to wow us with their flawlessness and their capacity for manipulation of the image.

      A few spotted and reported by fans in Spiderman are: Continuity: The intact windows mentioned above — in the scene where Mary Jane is being mugged by four men, Spiderman throws two of the men into two windows behind Mary Jane. Then the camera goes back to Spiderman beating up the other two guys. When the camera goes back to Mary Jane the two windows are intact. Continuity: When Peter shoots his web at his bedroom lamp and pulls it across the room, it smashes against the wall and breaks. But when Aunt May is talking to Peter from the door seconds later, the lamp is back on the dresser in one piece.

      Continuity: In the scene where Norman is getting ready to test himself he lays down on the bed, fastens himself in and the doctor goes to the computer. However, when it shows him being brought into the chamber he has several electrodes connected to his chest and head. Continuity: In the final cemetery sequence, Peter and Mary Jane square off for a little heart to heart, with her touching his face tenderly with her black leather The language of film gloves.

      The camera cuts between front views of both: in hers, her fingers are touching his ear lobe, in his, they are an inch below his ear lobe. Factual error: When Harry is talking to Mary Jane on the phone, she hangs up on him and his cell phone produces a dial tone. Cell phones do not have a dial tone. Keeping spectators oriented in time, these devices insure the smooth unfolding of the story in whatever order seems best suited for its purposes. Sound, however, engages a distinct sensory realm worth attending to with some specificity, even or perhaps especially when silence seems to prevail.

      Sound, as many critics have taught us, functions in a variety of different ways. Not mere accompaniment to the image, sound actively shapes how we perceive and interpret the image. It directs our attention within the image, and it cues us to form expectations. Just as elements of the image function as motifs, so too do elements or types of sound. Although these examples suggest a wide range of sound elements, in the language of formal analysis there are only three types of film sound: speech, music, noise effects.

      Speech in film can serve other masters than naturalism, too: as the great Soviet director V. Pudovkin understood, sound may offer a counterpoint rather than an accompaniment to an image, a subjective route to understand an objective visual presentation. Since speech frequently emanates from onscreen characters, it is most frequently diegetic sound; that is, sound whose source belongs to the imaginative world of the film, sound that is understood to issue from that world rather than ours.

      Examples of non-diegetic sound include voice-over commentary that is, commentary that issues from another world than that depicted on the screen , music that accompanies the image from without rather than from a source within the world of the film music, that is, which we presume the characters do not hear , or noises on the soundtrack likewise there for the ears of the audience alone. The distinction between diegetic and non-diegetic sound helps us to understand how sounds in narrative film are motivated, how the sound design is constructed. And finally, a musical score might stand on its own, as director Sidney Lumet, who generally believed that a score should serve a picture, The language of film BOX 2.

      He brought me the authentic sounds of not only the Orient Express but the Flying Scotsman, the Twentieth Century Limited, every train that had ever achieved any reputation. He worked for six weeks on train sounds only. His greatest moment occurred when, at the beginning of the picture, the train left the station at Istanbul. He swore that all the effects were authentic. When we got to the mix the point at which we put all the sound tracks together , he was bursting with anticipation.

      I knew one would have to go. I turned to Simon. He knew. Even when I hear the music on a record today, I start remembering the sequence visually. The two, music and picture, are indelibly linked: a great sequence, a great score. Every footstep, every door slam, every pin drop is engineered in order to produce an acoustic landscape in a given film; not a single element of noise is simply natural or given.

      If the sound coming from the floor above in a hotel room is audible, it is meant to be audible in order to give our hero and heroine the chance for an accidental encounter; if we hear the voices of our stars rising above the din on a crowded street, it is so that we eliminate the buzz of real human noise to concentrate on their plight. Further dimensions of film sound include rhythm beat, pulse, pace, tempo, or pattern of accents , fidelity the extent to which film sound is faithful, according to our conventional expectations, to its source , and space not simply whether a sound is diegetic or non-diegetic but how sound shapes the space of what is filmed, how sound creates and defines space.

      Sound designers and editors manipulate all of these dimensions of film sound through principles of selection, combination, and alteration. The language of film BOX 2. Cinematography encompasses all that is to do with the camera: framing, angle, focus, movement, and compositing. The five types of edits cut, dissolve, fade, wipe, and iris serve different functions in different contexts, whether within the system of continuity editing associated with the narrative form of classical Hollywood cinema or other cinematic contexts. Finally, the three types of sound speech, music, and noise actively shape how we work with images.

      Experiment with readings of brief sequences to practice the terminology: once it comes quickly and easily, start to put it to use! The practice of film history, in other words, is not understood as itself a transparent or linear march of progress as charted by critics but instead as a practice by filmmakers and scholars alike of generating history. What I seek to emphasize alongside, not in place of, such an overview, first, is the way that we see image as history and recall history as image. Much of what we know of the past, in other words, we access through the vast archives of the cinema.

      It shows what the city and its inhabitants looked like in and it shows something of what the war did to the city, notably in the various shots of bomb-damaged buildings. Forgacs 22 But what, we now need to ask, do we make of how these films seize and respect the real? What do we know and what are we to make of these moments in their social, aesthetic, consequential dimensions? We also recall history through images. Think of the s. What do you see? A Technicolor suburb? Black-and-white footage of school integration?

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      A rousing musical? Or think of Hiroshima or Nagasaki: a black-and-white mushroom cloud, grainy and brief? Think of industrial labor, and you perhaps witness molten steel pouring in a darkened factory, or their smokestacks bellowing, or workers streaming into factory gates. Second, film shapes history as much as it records or reflects it. Most directly, propaganda films — those films produced directly by the state — rally troops for war, advocate for sweeping national policy changes, stitch empires together, quell dissent. So, too, do commercial films, if less overtly, if less didactically, if less visibly intertwined with state power.

      Commercial films undergo 55 56 The history of film censorship, often receive governmental subsidies, enter into labyrinths of legal regulation and intellectual property restrictions: all axes of state control. To recall film history, then, is to recall our history, as well as moments of particular brilliance and technological innovation.

      It is to recall how upbeat musicals, such as the vehicles for Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, provided relief and distraction to some from the woes of the depression in the s. And it is to recall how everyday gestures, acts, feelings, and responses feed from the cinematic machine and recycle through our own perceptions and senses. To tell the story of the history of cinema, this chapter is organized into two sections, each of which generates different critical questions by investigating a different method of writing and filming history.

      Each moment is meant both to stimulate deeper thinking about how viewers, makers, and critics systematize and organize historical understanding and to cast a critical glance at the generalizations that tend to emerge from such periodizing. In emphasizing the benefits and drawbacks of a model of film history as waves of successive national movements, this section opens routes for understanding previous formations as transnational or international ones, and for recognizing new political, social, and cultural formations i.

      European popular film and the European Union, Latin American cinemas and issues of cultural policy, and Asian popular cinemas, to name a few. Birth, origins, invention; perhaps because cinema remains a relatively young medium, having just celebrated its centennial, scholars and makers return repetitively, if not obsessively, to the origins of cinema in search of its essence. Is it, at its core, motion? Is it memory? If film historians seek to capture this stream of repetition and innovation, their task is to correlate these complex syncopations and counterpoints with the histories with which they intersect that is, histories of nations, of individuals, of industries and with flows that frequently evade the writing of history those everyday or aleatory events elided by the stories of grand events and historical breaks.

      How to approach a decade, then? The critical school called historicism more specifically in literary studies called the new historicism posits that a work of art can best be understood contextually, rather than as an autonomous product of an individual mind or hand. By locating an artwork in its time, place, and circumstance, historicists tend to explain its particular features as indebted to its milieu, its influences, and its local peculiarities. Amid this amalgamation of social, political, and cultural conditions, Hollywood was under siege: The history of film from the Justice Department, which pressed for big film companies to divest themselves of their theater holdings; from the middleclass, whose retreat to family entertainment inside the home drastically decreased the filmgoing audience; and from the House Un-American Activities Committee, which was attempting to purge the country of dissenting political views.

      In this difficult context, however, some of the most talented filmmakers of all time, including John Ford, Alfred Hitchcock, Vincente Minnelli, Nicholas Ray, and Billy Wilder, produced some of their most remarkable work. If the Justice Department enforced anti-monopoly legislation commanding studios to shed their theater chains, it did so by virtue of the Supreme Court Paramount decision, which came after more than twenty years of intensive anti-trust pressure.

      If the middle class retreated to the home, it was in large measure a white middle class who left the inner cities and now-decaying movie palaces to those African-Americans who settled in northern cities after the Great Migration of the s and who had been banned from the suburbs by restrictive covenants real-estate ownership and leasing agreements that preserved white residency. In terms of experimental film, the s bleed into the s.

      In terms of films about AIDS, the s spill into the s. And countless others ooze similarly beyond the confines of their ten-year barriers. Marking periods by parameters other than decade yields other, oftentimes more fruitful, ways of understanding context. Studying the cinema of the Third Reich or of Italian fascism, for example, raises questions about the relationship between the state and civil society when the totalitarian or authoritarian government nationalizes or partially nationalizes a film industry in order to promote its vision.

      Certainly propaganda films emerged from both regimes; the images of stormtroopers, fascist salutes, and brownshirts are etched deeply in the historical record and in widespread recollections of the period. When the U. Listen to Britain, like its Griersonian precursor Song of Ceylon , also experiments with the atmospheric and evocative powers of sound. Both films precede British experiments in recording natural sound from speaking subjects without the use of scripts on 61 62 The history of film location these were to wait until after the war , yet both occupy prominent places as examples of experimentation in the use of sound in cinema.

      While film historians chart seismic shifts in the aesthetic and industrial organizations of cinema following significant innovations, they also demonstrate how changes in technology neither precisely precede nor simply follow upon what appear to be ancillary effects.

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      Instead, the imbrication of technological development, aesthetic norms, and industrial organization achieve heightened visibility at moments of dramatic change. In the history of cinematic technology, we have but one Urexample in the twentieth century: the coming of sound in the period of the mids to mids. By contrast, sound changed everything. The celebratory and intense competition surrounding the different systems led listeners to listen more closely than ever before.

      Thompson The idea of sound alongside film convinced spectators; inventors needed to surmount immense technological and aesthetic obstacles to widespread and cost-effective recording of cinematic sound. For both, the technological principles predated their combination into a workable apparatus for several decades; the apparatus initially provided the means for novelty and commercial exploitation with little regard for aesthetic goals; and there existed a long temporal lag between the introduction of a workable and sophisticated machine and the commensurate elegant artistic deployment of that machine.

      The apparatus for sound cinema that eventually emerged followed a series of fascinating questions and debates, elevated to the status of high drama given the corporate mergers and investments at stake in its development on the threshold of the Depression. Should sound be recorded as it had been since Edison, on cylinders or more commonly discs to accompany strips of film, or should it be recorded optically directly on film?

      How would it be possible to amplify sound in theaters designed for silent cinema? Would the opulent movie palaces collapse if local theaters could compete with sound offerings? What aural grammar would best accompany the visual conventions of various national cinemas? How would actors trained in the exaggerated gestures and pantomime of silent cinema fare when they had to speak? To sing? And what to do about the loud hum that the actual sound cameras themselves produced on the set? That loud hum made by the cameras demanded that boxes be built around them to quarantine the sound from the set.

      A camera once mobile and free to roam, therefore, now rarely inched in any direction they could neither tilt nor track , resulting in 63 64 The history of film static and stilted cinematography for several years until that problem was solved with blimps casings that muffled the sound or, later, with quieter self-insulating camera motors. For a period of time actors, too, froze, commanded as they were to speak their lines directly into microphones — hidden in potted plants and other props — with limited range.

      But sound transformed other dimensions of cinema more dramatically. Most important, cinema tied itself to specific languages, with consequences for which audiences a given film could therefore reach and with both commercial and ideological ramifications. Where the intertitles of the silent cinema translated easily and cheaply from one language to another and frequently had little actually to do with the proffered images and lip movements! In some cases, exhibitors compensated and still do simply by turning down the dialogue in spoken scenes while providing simultaneous translation.

      In some cases, directors overcame the problem of translation the problem, that is, of limiting their markets for film export by recording a film simultaneously in two or more languages. Der Blaue Angel showcased the talents of Marlene Dietrich, who performed a German-language version as well as an English-language version, as did Greta Garbo in her first talkie, Anna Christie. More commonly, dubbing replaced the original language with a second language, mixing sometimes more, sometimes less seamlessly with the music and effects to create a new soundtrack.

      Finally, subtitles, used as early as , achieved the status of preferred technique for preserving the original text and intent by the screening of The Jazz Singer Egoyan and Balfour The coming of sound, then, freed some national cinemas to surmount the linguistic barrier through indigenous production, while it also allowed Hollywood to adapt to long-held The history of film hegemonies in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking markets, for example, by producing feature-length films in those languages and, later, by dubbing and subtitling its products into those languages.

      The coming of sound as a history of technological innovation, then, reveals the need to expand models of film history to encompass broader frames, international contexts, competing paradigms. But it is true that the interdependence of production resources, markets, audiences, and communities means that film historians need porous and pliable models for understanding these dependencies and connections, including their aesthetic and political consequences. An important rubric that has sought to capture that simultaneity is the idea of national cinema, to which I now turn by way of four case studies.

      The examples that follow help to clarify this. Not all genre films of the post-war period conform to this category, however, given the extent to which the British film industry sought to rebuild itself in the aftermath of wartime conflicts precisely by addressing social and cultural concerns, not specific entirely to Britain but shared and generated in these complicated years. As Landy observes, The films of the postwar period, too, are a fruitful source for examining profound contradictions in the public sphere, contradictions which expose fundamental tensions in the public and private spheres and work against the grain of efforts to recover traditional values.

      The focus on family melodramas and social problem films is indicative of the social and cultural displacements of political concerns onto the terrain of family life. The horror and science fiction films further reveal pervasive sexual and social conflicts. What characterizes Hammer films? The company itself was small, shaped by powerful figures in get it? Hammersmith: theater-owner Enrique Carreras whose son James and grandson Michael followed and William Hinds, owner of a jewelry shop group who also performed in amateur variety shows under the pseudonym Will Hammer, and whose own son, Anthony Hinds, was also to follow.

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      To fulfill the demand for quota films, Hammer Film Productions, Ltd. Directed by Val Guest, The Quatermass Xperiment, after the play-cum-franchise by Nigel Kneale, concerns the becoming-monster of the lone survivor of the crash of a rocket that had been sent into orbit by a rationalist scientist.

      Audiences understood the portrait more commonsensically: from this representation derives an The history of film extraordinary power of occupying a world in-between. It is not so much that one might want to read this monstrosity as specifically British or as specifically American, since the film was coproduced , but that one might notice how this monster takes shape within genealogies of Anglo-British contexts: the British origins of gothic fiction, the enduring links between monstrosity and reproduction, the anxieties about scientific experimentation in the s following atomic devastation, optimism regarding scientific breakthroughs and space travel.

      Folded throughout these contexts is an overarching sense of conflict between modes of knowledge, between tradition and the dramatic changes science brings to shared, communal life. This is not so much a theme but an enduring tension in both the British and the American mid-century. Begun in the s, the film industry now produces over films initially videos, now VCDs [video compact discs] per year, both in Lagos and in northern Nigeria. An astonishingly profitable and versatile industry centered in Lagos responds quickly to contemporary issues, to the stories, everyday habits, and themes of African people, and insofar as this cinema shapes social life through the recreation of social events, it functions less as a forum than as a force for national culture.

      The Nigerian video film industry, in other words, outpaces critical response to its new aesthetics and to its new modes of industrial organization. As with other national cinemas, the borders leak. Audiences for the Nigerian video films are scattered throughout Africa, Europe, and the Americas. But even within the country, the films write or rewrite the geographies of postcoloniality. The city film, a genre dealing specifically with the ambivalent promises of migration to the city, functions as a flashpoint for the tension between the shiny surfaces of commodities and the pull of tradition, the pleasures of emancipation and the daily struggles of survival in precarious economies.

      Whether explicitly evangelical — screened in churches and in religious convention grounds rather than in those video parlors that bring small audiences together — or linked to familial and social conflicts, these English-language films, like soap operas, function as sites for transcoding the public and the private spheres through which the nation is constituted.

      If the video films follow from this tradition, they do so in two ways: in their strong ties to audiences and in the generic mobility the industry displays. Outside the dominant distribution and exhibition structures, the circuits in which the video films travel resemble the emerging circuits of global media more than the limited public spheres of art-based cinema practices modeled on European cinephilia.

      In terms of genre, the video films move, as well, from films focused on those rituals such as witchcraft that appeal to popular The history of film audiences, to the city films, to comedies and so on. If they capitalize on success, responding nimbly to audience tastes and also to commonsense conceptions of the world, they mutate in ways that dominant critical approaches find it difficult to appreciate.

      They borrow from available models, grafting B-movie sensationalism onto the kinds of indigenous traditions represented by alarinjo art. And women form the core of the audience for the films, at the same time lacking any central role in their production or in the industry more broadly. The paradoxical position of women in the video film, then, offers an occasion to understand how images of women in the films shape and produce conceptions of femininity and roles for women who watch or consume them. The story is told from a patronizing view that sees the action of the glamour girls as something coming from fickle minds.

      It re-enforces the patronizing attitude employed by male video filmmakers in matters dealing with the explosion of a social problem such as prostitution in the city. By producing a second part of the story of the glamour girls, the producer indirectly tells us that the first part of the story was a success with the audience and that he is in constant touch with the drift in society. Yet to dismiss the industry in toto is to miss the chance to understand how it produces and also circulates ambivalent or contradictory responses to a rapidly changing world, a world that is, moreover, remapped through the transnational routes the films themselves sketch as they leave Nigeria for broader audiences.

      SPAGHETTI WESTERNS If the Nigerian video film creates a world of its own through its fusion of themes and genres as well as through its transnational circulation, the Italian or spaghetti western — which had its heyday in the s and s — combined the ingredients of the western genre into quite a different yet strangely autonomous world of its own.

      Like the British horror films and Nigerian video films, too, the spaghetti western emerged out of rapidly changing transnational industrial forms of organization, giving rise to a free-for-all competition for audiences and film markets against the increasing dominance of television by the s. The popularity of the western is directly attributable, in fact, to the extent to which American film and television had by the s saturated world markets.

      The spaghetti westerns build upon the central tension Cooper elaborated: the savage but free wilderness woods, desert, range vs. European and Asian film industries could not help but respond to the dominance and subsequent decline of American film in the post-war period. Among the victims were the independent studios distinguished by the production of B-westerns: in the year , for example, there were ninety-two westerns produced in Hollywood; ten years later, a mere eleven Buscombe In terms of thematics, the former highlighted the appeal of the mercenary, the hired elite, whose ethical and physical life provoked questions and immediate response; and the latter provided a blueprint for pragmatics, for the importation of a minor American star in a relatively inexpensive production shot in Europe to appeal to European audiences.

      Leone, the reigning king of the spaghetti western, adapted American themes of mercenary justice into heightened meditations on human existence and forms of dependency. His worlds of men — for there are very few women in the genre — collide with one another in bursts of violent anger, and they also co-exist with one another in interludes of silent homosociality, accompanied by the scores of legendary film composer Ennio Morricone, with whom Leone frequently collaborated. Cynicism is the order of the day, violence the only option for action, the dollar the sole currency of human value.

      In the era of Vietnam and the Kennedy assassinations, Leone gives voice to longstanding ambivalence following at the very least from the American occupation of Italy following the Second World War about Americans in Europe and about Americanization of the culture industries at large. Born in the s, a cinema of social protest grew from three main companies: Prabhat, Bombay Talkies, and New Theatres. Saigal as the leading man. The version in Hindi spawned an enormous following, and the film was lavishly remade in Bollywood in This New Indian Cinema was an inadequate umbrella designation for a number of different aesthetic and ideological projects, differentiated still further by regional and linguistic differences.

      Centers of film production exist for the Kannada Karnataka State film industry, the Tamil film industry, and the Telugu film industry, and there are also notable productions in Kerala and Malayalam. The film Bandit Queen, for example, takes realism to extraordinary new places with its portrait of a low-caste woman who became a real-life Robin Hood heroine in northern India. The mainstream cinema, on the other hand, preserves its interest in formulaic entertainment, sharing some standard and enduring features.

      The films run longer in duration than those of many national cinemas: at roughly three hours, they require an intermission. And they generally combine a variety of generic elements. While many are love stories or action pictures, they all incorporate song-and-dance routines, some used fluidly to drive the narrative while others punctuate the narrative in more staccato rhythms. Bollywood recycles, adapts, translates, and otherwise incorporates diverse material into its stories, remaking Hollywood films, remixing or reinterpreting its own successes, and responding to increased interest from spectators around the world to its products.

      BOX 3. To speak meaningfully about the history of film and the role cinema plays as and in history, we must nonetheless invoke those places and peoples of the cinema in specific and delineated ways. If periodization often strangles anomalies into patterns, it ought to be tested and pushed and otherwise questioned even as it may prove useful in making the archive manageable. Likewise, if the litany of technological change partakes of a kind of determinism, wherein all change is attributed to a single cause, it ought to be probed and similarly questioned rather than taken as objective science or as fait accompli.

      Finally, if the study of national cinemas keeps alive the dynamic relationships between state and industry, between industry and culture, between makers and their audiences, and between audiences and critical perspectives, we may generate understandings of those stories and images coming to us from Bosnia and Iran, from South Korea and Chile, and from Nottingham and Nebraska more thoroughly, more vibrantly, more powerfully. In Chapters 4 and 5, then, I turn to other models for the understanding and study of cinema more generally, models for the study first of production and exhibition and second of reception.

      In talking about distribution, we generally refer to the labyrinths through which films move from producer filmmaker, studio to exhibitor theater. And in talking about exhibition, we differentiate the organization and practice of showing films issues ranging from theater acoustics to projectionist 82 The production and exhibition of film unions from the practices and habits of reception, of watching or making sense of them.

      To survey the field of production thus understood and the massive efforts of publicity coordinated to distribute inordinately expensive films successfully , one needs some understanding of its key jobs and functions, learning finally! To survey the fields of distribution and exhibition within this industrial context, one needs some understanding of how tightly the corporate knot that binds them has been historically tied, and how synergies function within global technologies and entertainment behemoths.

      In this sense, production distinguishes one process from another. By that logic, one might talk colloquially about the process of making movies, followed by the process of watching or responding to or analyzing movies, no matter the scale or the mode of production. Not that the practices of distribution or exhibition have ever been stable or unitary. In that section I look at cinema practices marginalized by academia such as gay porn; analyses of genre and ways of thinking beyond genre; and, third, the ways in which distribution can function as authorship.

      Experimental filmmaker Maya Deren knew it was possible to do so on the cheap as early as the s: Cameras do not make films; film-makers make films. Improve your films not by adding more equipment and personnel but by using what you have to the fullest capacity. The most important part of your equipment is yourself: your mobile body, your imaginative mind, and your freedom to use both. Renan 41 With the independent film sector exploding in past years, it becomes increasingly imaginable for any given person with a good idea, more frequently a bad one, to undertake a film project.

      Pre-production involves the elaboration of an idea from inchoate premise to a plan for movie-making and includes all the tasks one must complete before actually shooting a film. In the case of a smallscale film, pre-production begins with elaborating an idea over several written stages. Characters and props already define the protagonists. Monocle in place, riding crop in hand, with a touch of arrogance and impertinence. He asks a pilot to take him on a reconnaissance flight.

      The fortunes of war and his own merits have brought him his commission very quickly. A great concert is being given by Paul Stiller. It was his friend Robert Monteux who convinced the great conductor to come to Paris and who financed this sensational performance. Monteux is very proud, and he accepts the congratulations as if he had composed the music himself. Great enthusiasm from the audience. Only one person is not enthusiastic about the marriage.

      He likes Monteux, but he likes Christine more, and he thinks that the newlyweds will not get along with each other for long because Christine is more intelligent and Monteux, despite all the money he has earned, is a fool. People make fun of him. But the marriage is set. Description of the kind of insanity that takes possession of a euphoric crowd. The most eminent public figures congratulate Cartier.

      The most beautiful women throw kisses to him. Finally he manages to reach his car. It is a beautiful automobile in which his chauffeur whisks him away. To get back to Paris he will have to take an extensive detour since the heavy traffic has blocked the direct route. Renoir, quoted in Bazin —8 and how characters function in terms of that structure.

      Even an avowedly avant-garde premise can benefit from some form of sketching or elaboration. From proposal to treatment, from treatment to script or screenplay: a screenplay follows a common format and supplies full dialogue between characters, the locations of every numbered scene, and all of the action in the story.

      First, to make it possible to identify a scene during shooting, each The production and exhibition of film scene is numbered. Because each page of a screenplay occupies roughly one minute of screen time, knowing the page count of a given scene is crucial. Finally, sounds or sound effects appear in capital letters, providing preliminary cues about how the film will eventually sound. From screenplay to shooting script: this expanded version of the screenplay adds all of the information necessary to transform the screenplay into actual images and sounds.

      While some directors rely more heavily than others upon storyboards in pre-production planning, the work of pre-production maximizes the chances of making a good film in the end. All of these activities must, furthermore, adhere to a strict budget, administered and supervised by a line producer, so called because the 87 88 The production and exhibition of film BOX 4. I got in with Stillwater. William nods, still scribbling. She eases down into place on the step next to him.

      Her proximity causes him to look at her, his eyebrows rising. She smooths them down with two single fingers. How old are you? The truth just sounds different. She looks upstairs, soaking in the sound of another band tuning up. Music is her religion. The production budget determines all that will follow in the next phase. The production phase technically encompasses, for a feature film, only the activity of principal photography, that is, the shooting and sound recording of the principal performers and the essential actions. But even principal photography enlists the services of a small army of talented laborers.

      Captured by the first unit of production, the director, and principal actors, the principal photography is the meat of the film, supplemented by the work of the second unit, which contributes inserts, backgrounds, aerial photography, special location shots, action sequences, and the like. For a smaller production, various combinations of technical expertise in crews draw from these general structures.

      Assisting the director, a crew of five involves itself closely in decision-making on set and, perhaps most crucial, in tracking what actually gets from script to film. The first and second assistant directors A. For those viewers who avidly note mistakes in continuity a character is bare-headed when leaving the house, but miraculously appears with a beret in the exterior shot , the script supervisor may well be your culprit to blame. Assisting the script supervisor, the dialogue director tracks changes in dialogue from rehearsal, where actors often forge new approaches to the script or tweak its details, to what makes its way to the take.

      Directors work closely, of course, with actors, primarily with those principal actors often called lead actors or stars, and, as we 89 90 The production and exhibition of film know, not every lead actor is a star. Other actors appear further down the hierarchy: character actors, whose fame derives from the ability to play certain types with success or finesse, bit players, who have small credited parts, and, at the bottom of the pile, extras, who appear uncredited in crowds or backgrounds. Actors of all types depend for their livelihoods upon those who give them their filmic allure: the cinematographer and camera crew.

      For unionized labor in large-scale industrial undertakings, accreditation from an organization such as the American Society of Cinematographers functions as much as a badge of professionalism as a method of receiving due protection and compensation. In the United States, the cinematographer or director of photography D.

      In Britain, the lighting cameraman handles the lighting, while the director works with the operative cameraman to control the camera and action. The lighting designer collaborates with the cinematographer to achieve the two cardinal imperatives of image-making: balance control of the tonal range from black to white, dark to light and consistency balance from shot to shot. If in small productions a cinematographer controls all elements of the camera and lighting, in larger productions a camera crew supports the D. The production and exhibition of film Sound crews similarly record all elements of production sound, usually divided into the categories of sync sound recorded in synchronization with the camera and wild sound not synchronized , both of which belong to the category of live sound, recorded during shooting as opposed to post-production.

      The production sound crew assists with booms for microphones operated by the sound assistant or, predictably, the boom operator and affixing smaller microphones on set. Later the sound crew, led by a production mixer, combines a preliminary sound mix, much of which changes in the post-production phase, when our Foley artist steps in to perform replacement sound effects, from footsteps through squealing tires to raindrops dancing on tin roofs.

      Rounding off the production team, a gaggle bevy? While lawyers enter largely at the post-production phase, accountants keep the production on budget and adjust it only when absolutely necessary.